XX. yüzyılın en önemli Fransız yazarlarından biri olan Albert Camus’nun ilk kitaplarından biri olan Le Mythe de Sisyphe. Essai sur l’absurde adlı denemesi 1942 yılında yayımlandı. Kitabın başlığının esin kaynağı, beş sayfalık son bölümdür. Bu eserdeki temel problematik anlamsız bir varoluşu devam ettirip ettirmemekle ilgilidir. Ateist ve materyalist bir paradigmadan konuya eğilen Camus, tüm anlamsızlığına rağmen yaşamaya devam etmek ve intiharı reddetmek gerektiğini savunur. Ama neden? Nihai gayeden yoksun ve ölümlü yok olup gidecek bir varoluş nasıl kabul edilebilir? Camus, varoluşun önündeki en büyük engel olan ölüme karşı direnmek ve anlamsız olmasına rağmen hayata sarılmak gerektiğini düşünür. Absürd kavramıyla dile getirilen bu düşüncenin arketipini Camus, bir antik Yunan miti olan Sisifos mitinde bulur. Camus’ya göre ölüme meydan okuyan Sisifos’u mutlu tahayyül etmek gerekir. Oysa mitin orijinalinde tanrısal düzene başkaldırmaya çalışan ve ölümden kaçtığı için Cehennemde bir dağın tepesine çıkardığında her seferinde dibe doğru geri yuvarlanan bir kayayla imtihan şeklinde ebedi azaba duçar olan bir isyankâr betimlenir. Hem postmortem safhayı hem de tanrısal düzeni reddeden Camus’nun kendi paradigmasıyla taban tabana zıt bir inanç sisteminden ödünç aldığı bir unsurun paradoksun çözülmesi için kullanılması dikkat çekicidir. Hermenötik işlem sayesinde Camus, Sokrates’in ölüm korkusunu yenme şeklinde tanımladığı hikmet düşüncesiyle karşılaşır. Bir ayna haline gelen mit, Camus’ya kendi gerçekliğini yansıtarak ona ölümsüzlüğü yansıtır.
In 1961 Mircea Eliade published his one of his most important articles about the methodology of the History of Religions: “History of Religions and a New Humanism” which opened the first issue of the journal History of Religions. Eliade describes their task of the discipline. Beyond being a scientific discipline, the science of religions will fulfill its true cultural function by making the meanings of religious documents intelligible to the mind of modern man and this cultural role is of the first importance. The main factor which incited Eliade to define such a task was on the one hand, the recent reappearance of the peoples of Asia on the stage of history and, on the other; the so-called primitive peoples were preparing to make their appearance on the horizon of greater history. Eliade expected these confrontations between Westerners and non-Westerners would create new cultural values. Eliade believed that by attempting to understand the existential situations expressed by the documents he is studying; the historian of religions would inevitably attain to a deeper knowledge of man. It is on the basis of such a knowledge that a new humanism, on a world-wide scale, could develop. The specificity of this task to this discipline is due to its research area. This article was reissued in The Quest: History and Meaning in Religion (1969) with some addenda. There Eliade emphasizes the privileged position of the History of Religions among the other humanistic disciplines. For him, more than any other humanistic discipline (i.e., psychology, anthropology, sociology, etc.), history of religions can open the way to a philosophical anthropology. For the sacred is a universal dimension and the beginnings of culture are rooted in religious experiences and beliefs. Furthermore, even after they are radically secularized, such cultural creations as social institutions, technology, moral ideas, arts, etc., cannot be correctly understood if one does not know their original religious matrix, which they tacitly criticized, modified, or rejected in becoming what they are now: secular cultural values. Thus, the historian of religions is in a position to grasp the permanence of what has been called man's specific existential situation of "being in the world," for the experience of the sacred is its correlate. In fact, man's becoming aware of his own mode of being and assuming his presence in the world together constitute a "religious" experience.
Four years later published Eliade’s article “Crisis and Renewal in the History of Religions”. In the first article mentioned above Eliade’s main concern was about the task of the History of Religions: a new humanism. Now he tackles with the problem of methodology. How this aim can be reached? This is the major subject of this article.
Eliade reiterates his conception of the History Religions as a privileged discipline. He claims that the history of religions is not merely a historical discipline as for example, archeology or numismatics. It is as well a total hermeneutics, being called to decipher and explicate every kind of encounter of man with the sacred, from prehistory to our day. This kind of hermeneutics is different from textual interpretation or philosophical hermeneutics of Dilthey, Heidegger or Gadamer. It seems that Eliade’s hermeneutics was rather influenced by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur, his colleague at the Divinity School of the University of Chicago from 1970 and at the same time a family friend.
Eliade’s creative hermeneutic is more than an instruction; it is also “a spiritual technique susceptible of modifying the quality of existence itself”. What is at stake in not a discovery about a natural phenomenon or about a new element for example but an existential situation, a being in the world. The historian of religions is studying the sacred worlds of people. The sacred is the key element shaping their every day life and their self representation of their world and themselves. Eliade emphasizes the fact that the discovery of a spiritual world is in terms of quality different from other kinds of discoveries. Creative hermeneutics unveils significations that one did not grasp before or puts them in relief with such vigor that after having assimilated this new interpretation the consciousness is no longer the same.
In conclusion the hope of Eliade was the inner transformation of the researcher and, of the sympathetic reader through the hermeneutical effort of deciphering the meaning of myths, symbols, and other traditional religious structures. That’s why he considered the phenomenology and history of religions among the very few humanistic disciplines that are at the same time propaedeutic and spiritual techniques.
While in the creative hermeneutics Eliade emphasizes primarily the role of the of specialist in the field of religion, Ricœur, develops more precisely the inner changes occurring in the individual mind by putting emphasis upon self-understanding as the outcome of the hermeneutical process. For Ricoeur, the purpose of all interpretation is to conquer a remoteness, a distance between the past cultural epoch to which the text belongs and the interpreter himself. By overcoming this distance, by making himself contemporary with the text, the exegete can appropriate its meaning to himself: foreign, he makes it familiar, that is, he makes it his own. It is thus the growth of his own understanding of himself that he pursues through his understanding of others. Every hermeneutics is thus, explicitly or implicitly, self-understanding by means of understanding others.
The purpose of this paper is to unclose the hermeneutical process, this “royal road” of the History of Religions as labeled by Eliade. The inspiration came from the reading of Camus’ Le Mythe de Sisyphe, the case of Camus, provides us a very rich and interesting illustration of the manner in which hermeneutics is deployed and of the function of mythology even for those who deny the reality of such narratives.
Le Mythe de Sisyphe. Essai sur l’absurde, one of the first books of Albert Camus, one of the most important French authors of the 20th century was published in 1942. The source of inspiration for the title of the book is its last chapter, five pages in total. The principal problematic of this work is to find an answer to the problem of whether a meaningless existence is worthy of being lived or not. Stimulated by an atheist and materialist paradigm, Camus argues that despite all its meaninglessness, one must choose life and reject suicide. But why? How can an existence deprived of an ultimate aim going to be destroyed by death be assumed? Camus thinks that it is necessary to resist death, which is the biggest obstacle in front of existence, and to embrace life albeit its meaninglessness. He finds, the archetype of this thought, represented by the concept of absurd, found in the myth of Sisifos, an ancient Greek myth. According to Camus, it is necessary to imagine Sisifos who defied death happy. However, the original myth depicts a rebellious man who because he rebelled against the divine realm and tried to escape from death was condemned to eternal torment in Hell. His punishment was to roll a stone to the top of a mountain. When he ascended the top of the mountain in Tartarus, every time the rock rolled back to the bottom, it is noteworthy that Camus used its own paradigm to reject the paradox of an element borrowed from a system of beliefs diametrically opposed to his one that deny both the postmortem phase and the divine order. Through the hermeneutical process Camus is confronted with a wisdom which Socrates described as defeating the fear of death. The myth has become a kind of mirror by reflecting his own reality to Camus reflects immortality.
The total hermeneutics of Eliade involves an existential aspect of understanding because of the existential and ontological character of the documents studies by the historian of religions. The religious nature of data like, myths, symbols or religious texts enable the existential dimension of understanding. In his second article Eliade speaks of the “encounter of man with the sacred” i.e. with the wholly other. The other provides something we do not have and thus fills a gap or establishes the missing link. Camus’ hermeneutic endeavor represents such a task: finding a meaning to the existence even though it appears there is no meaning to be found. The main concern of Camus’ problematic and the source of his existential anxiety is the phenomenon of death, his worst enemy. The myth of Sisyphus by narrating the immortality of the soul provides the missing link in the thinking of Camus. The wisdom or the message that Camus perceives from this myth is to not be afraid of death. Because death is an inseparable element of the human condition and that life is not restricted to this world. There is an afterlife shaped by man’s earthly life. But Camus restricts himself with the first part of the message. The myth of Sisyphus sat Camus up with wisdom.
In conclusion Camus’ case illustrates beautifully what Eliade means by creative hermeneutics. But it demonstrates at the same time that sometimes the power of the message carried by myths are so strong that it does not necessary needs specialists to be deciphered. It can reveal itself to everybody searching for it.
Ahlaki rölativizm ahlaki doğru ve ilkelerin objektifliğini ve evrenselliğini reddeden, bunların bireye veya topluma göreli olduğunu savunan yaklaşımlara verilen genel isimdir. Bu çalışmada ahlaki rölativizm lehinde sunulan argümanların çok sağlam ve güçlü olmadığını göstermek ve rölativizmin karşılaşabileceği diğer sorunlara işaret etmek suretiyle, bu tür rölativist yaklaşımların haklı olmadığını savunmaya çalıştık.
Ahlaki rölativizm lehinde ileri sürülen en meşhur argümanlardan birisi kişilerin ve toplumların ahlaki kabul ve pratiklerinin farklılığından hareket eden argümandır. Bu argüman ahlaki konulardaki farklı kabullerin varlığından hareketle ahlakın rölatif olduğu sonucuna doğrudan giden bir argüman olarak sunulduğunda, onun sağlam olmayacağı açıktır. Zira bir alanda inanç farklılıklarının var olmasının tek başına bu alanda objektif doğrunun olmadığını kanıtlayamaz. Diğer taraftan söz konusu argümanın ahlaki konulardaki farklılık ve anlaşmazlıkların varlığının en iyi açıklamasının ahlaki rölativizm olduğu görüşünden hareket eden şekli de çok güçlü gözükmemektedir. Zira bu tür farklı ahlaki inançların varlığı objektif bir ahlak anlayışı ile de yeterince açıklanabilir.
Ahlaki rölativizm lehinde ileri sürülen başka bir argüman farklı ahlaki inanç ve pratiklere hoşgörülü olmak açısından rölativizmin objektif yaklaşımlardan daha olumlu bir sonuç doğuracağı fikrinden hareket etmektedir. Halbuki rölativizmin hoşgörüyü garanti etmesi söz konusu olmadığı gibi, ahlak alanında objektif bir yaklaşımı benimsemenin zorunlu olarak veya kuvvetle muhtemel olarak hoşgörüsüzlüğe götüreceğini savunmak da kolay değildir. Zira rölativizmi benimseyen bir kişi benimsediği doğruları değişik nedenlerle başkasına dayatmaya çalışabileceği gibi, objektif anlayışı benimseyen birisi de hoşgörüyü evrensel bir değer olarak alıp, başkalarının farklı kabullerine hoşgörü ile yaklaşabilir.
Ethical relativizm is an aproach which deny objectivitiy and universality of moral truths and rules and which argues for their relativity to individuals or societies. This approach is maintained by many peoples and seen obviously true by them. The most common two arguments provided to support ethical relativizm are the argument from individual or cultural disagreements on ethical issues and argument from the opinion that relativizm supports tolerance. In this work we tried to argue for that ethical relativizm is not justified by showing that these arguments which are presented to support relativizm aren’t sound or cogent and by pointing the other problems that ethical relativizm will confront.
Ethical relativizm, as a theory about sources of moral principles and truths, imply that the sources of these principles and truths are person or society/culture. So ethical relativizm argues that these principles and truths don’t have objective and universal validity, they have only a validity relative to a person or society. In this case there are two basic kinds of relativizm, as subjective relativizm and cultural relativizm. One of the most famous arguments in favor of this approach is argument from disagreements between people’s and society’s moral codes and practices. The other famous argument is argument reasoning from the view that ethical relativizm will make better results in terms of tolerance. There are different versions of first argument. When this argument is presented as an argument reasoning from the presence of different moral beliefs and practises between persons or societies to the conlusion that morality is relative directly, it is obvious that this argument is not sound. Because it is obvious that the presence of different beliefs on a subject doesn’t prove by itself that there isn’t any objective truth on this subject. Moreover, it can be said that this argument is exaggerating the diffirences between people’s and society’s moral beliefs and practices, thus it missed the fact that people and societies are in fact agreeing on many moral beliefs and practises. The other version of this argument is reasoning from the view that the best explanation of the presence of these moral differences is provided by ethical relativizm. It can be said that this version of the first argument is not cogent. Because the presence of these different moral beliefs and practices can be explained on an objective ethical theory. In addition, for evaluating a moral theory’s success, it is more reasonable to investigate a theory’s capability of explaining many of moral facts, not its capability of explaning only one fact. In this regard it can be said that ethical relativizm can’t explain many moral facts whose being is intuitively clear and that ethical relativizm is not succesful.
Another argument offered in favor of ethical relativizm is reasoning from the view that ethical relativizm makes better results in terms of tolerance to different moral beliefs and practices; that objective approaches will make bad results in terms of tolerance. However, ethical relativizm doesn’t guarantee the tolerance and it can not reasonably argued that an objective moral approach will necessarily or more probably lead to intolerance. Because a relativist might try to insist his beliefs on others for different reasons and an objectivist might take tolerance as an universal virtue and so might be tolerant to different moral beliefs and practices of others.
In addition to unsoundness or uncogentness of the arguments provided in favor of ethical relativizm, there are other problems this approach might face. For example: ethical relativizm would assume the infallibility of person or society which it sees as source of moral principles, so would accept everything approved by this person or society as morally acceptable. This means that person or societies are uncritizable. But it is obvius that this idea is not reasonable. Moreover, for ethical relativizm, ethical truth will be relative to time as well as to person and society. So the same thing will have different moral values with the change in the attitudes of people or society, without any change in its inherent factual characteristics. But it is not reasonable that the same thing would be morally right some time ago and became morally wrong after some time according to attitudes of person or society without any factual changes. In addition, ethical relativizm can not sufficiently explain normativity of moral beliefs and codes, in other words it can not explain their capability of giving good, morally justifying reasons for actions. Because any action which is done only because of arbitrary acceptance or approvement will not be justified. If it is argued that this acceptance or approvement is not arbitrary but there are morally justifying reasons behind them, then it would be accepted that there are moral truths independent from acceptance or aprovement of person or society. But this acceptance would not be coherent with ethical relativizm
Müslüman toplumun “kutsal” kitaplarına duydukları şekle ve muhtevaya yönelik derin saygı, sadece dinsel ritüellerin pratiği esnasında değil gündelik hayata yansıyan çok çeşitli hürmet biçimleriyle de onları diğer din ve medeniyet mensuplarından ciddi ölçüde ayırmaktadır. Bununla birlikte bu medeniyet mensupları, rol model (üsve-i hasene) olarak gördükleri peygamberlerinin şakaya hoşgörüyle bakan kişiliğinden de cesaret alarak çağlar boyunca dini içerikli mizah üretme konusunda kendilerini özgür hissetmişlerdir. Öyle anlaşılıyor ki bu özgürlük, onları, gündelik yaşamlarına yoğun müdahalesi sebebiyle metnine yakından aşina oldukları kutsal kitapları üzerinden de nükte üretmeye cesaretlendirmiş gözükmektedir. Zira hicri birinci yüzyıldan başlamak üzere nicelik ve nitelik bakımından gittikçe artan bir oranda Kur’ân-ı Kerîm metnine dayalı mizah örneklerinin sergilendiği yüzlerce edebi ve mizahi koleksiyon ortaya konulmuştur. Kur’ân eksenli mizah alanında belli bazı isimlerin sivrildiği, sayısal bakımdan daha fazla anekdotun başkahramanı oldukları gözlemlenmektedir.Hiç şüphesiz bu listenin en tepesinde Ebü’l-‘Aynâ yer almaktadır. Ona ait rivâyetlerin sayıca çokluğu bir saray nedimi olarak saray çevresiyle kurduğu diyalogların büyük bir kısmının rivâyete sıkça konu edilmesinden kaynaklanmış olabilir. Bu makalede, klasik Arap literatüründeki Ebü’l-Aynâ’ya ait nüktelerin, Kur’ân-ı Kerîm âyetlerine dayalı olan sınıfı tespit edilecek, bu anekdotlardaki mizah biçim ve teknikleri gösterilerek, Ebü’l-Aynâ’nın şahsında, Müslümanların mizah gibi seküler bir ihtiyacı karşılamak için kutsal olanı nasıl ustaca manipüle ettikleri ortaya konulmaya çalışılacaktır.
The deep respect, which the Muslim community has for the form and content of their “holy” scriptures, seriously distinguishes them from other members of religion and civilization through their reverence not only during the practice of religious rituals but also in various forms reflected in everyday life. At the same time, the members of this civilization have always felt free to produce religious content with humour down the ages by getting encouraged from the prophets who consider the jokes indulgently and whom they regarded as role models. It is understood that, this freedom also seems to encourage them to make witty remarks over the holy scripture of which the text they are familiar with because of its intensive intervention in their daily lives. In as much as, since the first century of the hijri era, hundreds of literary and humorous collections exhibiting humorous examples based on the text of Qu’ran have been introduced with an increasing quantity and quality.
This literary art, which aims to benefit from the associative power of the Holy Scripture and which may more or less be defined as “including a verse of the Qur'anic text completely or partly in a contemporary dialogue context or in the form of a poetry or prose” has been stated using a number of terms including similar meanings such as “husnu't-tevessul”, “et-temessul bi'l- Qu’ran “, “al-istishhad bi'l-Quran”, “quotation” and “restitution”.
In fact, starting from the texts of the Prophet's khutbah and letters, since the earliest periods of Islamic history, the rashidun caliphs, companions of prophet Muhammad, the Muslim ruling class (emirates, sultans, governors), ulema class and especially the early representatives of ascetism have been often used this technique in order to strengthen their expressions. In this sense, today we have a rich source of narrative material indicating that the verses of the Qu’ran were interpreted in different ways, ignoring the revelation requirements and related contexts.
It is observed that certain names come into prominence in the Qur'an-driven humour and that they are the main protagonists of more anecdotes in numerical terms. Without a doubt, Abu'l-Ayna is at the top of this list. The fact that the number of his narrations is high and that these narrations are preserved in such a way to be included more in later works may be because of the fact that he has often mentioned a large part of the dialogues, which he had established with people of palace, into his narrations. A considerable part of the anecdote collection related to Abu'l-Aynâ consists of the wits referenced to the verses of Qur'an. As far as we can determine for now, this number is around 30 and there is no Quranic wit referred to a single person in this number on the date of nevadir. The influence of Qur'anic culture is clearly visible in most of the sarcastic responses of repartee Abu'l-Aynâ including sarcasm, irony, and despisement style and in some of his portrayals of literary value. His success of using the idioms and expressions from Qur'an as a means of description, when satirizing his opponents and people, whom he did not like, undoubtedly brings the level of viciousness and acerbity of his satire to the top.
Abu'l-Aynâ, a good social observer in spite of his paradoxical blindness, has often been protected by palace people, despite the viciousness of his wits. This very special form and character of this humour, which he has introduced, has provided him with sympathy that causes him to be tolerated even in the criticism of senior officials such as sultan, emirate, governor and tribal leader.
One of the cases, where Abu'l-Aynâ instrumentalized the verses of the Qur'an, is the use of some cliché phrases as a “tag”, when defining persons in a positively or negatively. Again in spontaneously developing dialogues, Abu al-'Ayna generally describes certain people upon the questions directed to him as patterned expressions, which are specific to the Qur'an, and this extraordinary form of “literary despisement”, which his is the expert of, provides a humour.
Classical Arabic nevadir includes numerous narrations, which have been fictionalized by many litterateurs, poets and humourist persons talented in humour and are wholly or partly imaginative, as well as numerous anecdotes and historical narrations that have historical reality. In this context, the issue of authenticity of story-like narrations is a serious issue for the modern researchers and anecdote editors. If whether a certain humorous narration has historical roots or not is based on a historical basis, the question of whether or not the characters or the flow of the narration or humorous emphasis evolve as the time goes keeps straining the mines of those interested in this field. I should state that this problem, which has not yet been solved yet, when mentioning the examples of the art of making humour with reference to the verses of the Qur'an comes up more because of their difficulties in practicing the art.
However, it is considered that the problem of authenticity is at the minimum level in the narrations of the famous humourists, who have lived in the history and many narrations from their mouths have been included in the classical sources, like Abu'l-Aynâ, Câhiz and Cemmâz. As a matter of fact, the biographies and characteristic features of these individuals are the evidence for the fact that they are capable of producing such a humorous skill themselves. Especially, most of the humorous anecdotes of Abu'l-Aynâ, which he has produced in the field of wit with Qur'an, are the anecdotes in which he has used his most obvious characteristic, repartee. It is quite natural for a person, who has this kind of character is a Qur'an hafiz, to produce witty remarks spontaneously by using the Qur'anic verses.
The fact that there are some changes arising due to minor modifications made in different narrations of an anecdote and sometimes in the names of the characters and fiction does not mean that this anecdote is synthetic. As a matter of fact, it is a known fact that minor differences, which will not disturb the general fiction and composition, can be present in the narrative tradition. This situation, which also applies for the anecdotes of Abu'l-Aynâ, does not bring us into any doubt about the authenticity of his wits.
Sûrelerin temel hedef ve gayelerinin kendisiyle bilindiği ilmin adımakâsıdu’s-süverdir.Makâsıdu’s-süver, kimi âlimlere göre tanımı, konusu, gayesi ve faydası olan müstakil bir ilim dalıdır ve tefsir ilminin bir alt disiplinini oluşturmaktadır. Biz bu makalede, sınırları vahyin kontrolünde çizilen sûrelerin maksat ve gayelerini belirlemeyi hedefleyen makâsıdu’s-süver konusunu değerlendireceğiz. Tefsir geleneğinde makâsıdu’s-süveri dikkate alan âlimlerimiz vardır. Özellikle İbrahim b. Ömer el-Bikâî, her bir sûreyi müstakil çalışma konusu yaparak Tefsir ilmi alanında “sûrelerin maksat ve hedefleri ilmi” olarak tanımladığı yeni bir ilim dalı oluşturmaya çalışmıştır. Ne var ki sonraki âlimler bu girişimi geliştirmemiştir. Bir bütün olarak sûrelerin genel anlam ve maksatlarına yönelik çalışmalar, geçtiğimiz yüzyılda tekrar gündeme gelebilmiştir. Nitekim son dönemlerde bazı ilim adamlarının Kur’ân üzerine yaptıkları çalışmalarda, “her sûreye bir bütün olarak bakma” eğilimini benimsedikleri görülmektedir. Bunlardan Muhammed Abduh ve talebesi Reşid Rıza, Hamîdüddîn Ferâhî ve talebesi Emin Ahsen Islâhî, Seyyid Kutup, Abdullah Draz ve Tahir b. Âşûr gibi müfessir ve Kur’ân araştırmacılarının çalışmaları önem arz etmektedir. Çünkü bunlar sûrelerin hedef ve gayeleri üzerinde önemle durmuşlar; her sûrenin girişinde o sûrenin hedef ve maksadına dair önemli açıklamalarda bulunmuşlardır. İşte bu çalışmalar, tefsir alanına yeni bir ivme kazandırmıştır. Kimi araştırmacıları bu tür çalışmalara yönelten sebeplerin başında, maksat ve hedef birliğinin bütün Kur’ân sûrelerinde görülmesi gelmektedir. Üzerinde hassasiyetle durulan husus, sûre içindeki âyet dizilişlerinin bir mantığının, bir iç tutarlılığının olduğu yönündedir.
The process and form of revelation of surahs constitute a variety. While some surahs were revealed at once as a whole, others were spread within a period of time as long as years. Furthermore, the process of revelation of surahs could take place in a form other than completion of the verses of a surah and only then commencement of revelation of verses of another. On the contrary, some verses or passages of (an)other surah(s) could be revealed after revelation of certain verses of a surah. As a consequence, it was only explained by Prophet Sallallahu alayhu wa sallam in person a group of revealed verses should be placed before or after which revealed verse groups.
The endings of those Koranic chapters called surahs comprising collection of different numbers of verses together have been set by the Most Gracious Prophet (sallalahu alayhi wa sallam) under the control of the revelations. The Holy Koran, which was gradually revealed in passages in a period of approximately twenty-three years has been divided into surahs different in terms of length, totaling to a number of 114. Each of the surahs in question have fundamental targets and objectives peculiar to themselves. The name of the discipline through which those fundamental targets and objectives of surahs are known is “the purposes of surahs (makâsidu’s suwar). Purposes of surahs is, according to some scholars, a distinct discipline with its own definition, subject, objective and benefit, and is a sub-discipline of the commentary discipline. Moreover, purposes of surahs is, as noted recently by some mufassirs, a critical element of introductions at the very entry of commentaries of each surah.
So we will be dealing, in this article of ours, with the subject of the purposes of surahs, the target of which is identification of the purposes and objectives of surahs as limited by the control of the revelations.
In our commentary tradition, we have scholars who have conducted studies on the purposes of surahs. We particularly see that Ibrahim bin Omar al-Bikâi conducted distinct studies on each surah and formed a new discipline which he described as “the discipline of purposes and targets of surahs” in the field of commentary discipline. Bikâi not only wrote the information on the purposes of surahs in his commentary named Nazmu’d Durar fî Tenâsubi’l Âyâti wa’s Suwarbut also introduced the first distinct book of the field. The name of that book in which the distinct purpose of each surah is identified is Mesâidu’n Nazar li’l Ishrâfi alâ Makâsidi’s Suwar. About the discipline on which he says every surah has a certain purpose and all sentences and even words of the surah serves that fundamental purpose, Mufassir Bikâi indicates that “Every surah has a single purpose, target and meaning on which all verses from the first to the last center, and work to prove that target.”
Bikâî’s studies in the field of purposes of surahshave been neither improved nor continued by subsequent scholars. Studies on the general meaning and purposes of surahs as a whole came again to order only in the past century in the studies of some scholars. As a matter of fact, some recent studies on Koran by some scholars show their tendency “to consider each surah as a whole”. The studies by mufassirs and Koran reearchers among those such as Muhammad Abduh and his student Rashid Reza, Hamîduddîn Farâhî and his student Emin Ahsen Islâhî, Seyyid Kutub, Abdullah Draz and Tahir bin Ashur etc. are significant. Because they attached particular significance to the targets and objectives of surahs; and made important explanations on the target and purpose introducing each surah.
So, the studies of some scholars and researchers up until today on determination of the targets and purposes of each and every surah brought new life into and spurred the field of commentary. The top reason attributing some scholars and researchers to such studies is observation of a unity of purpose and target in all Koranic surahs. So much so that all verses and sentences in a surah center on that predominant purpose from the beginning to end, and picture that purpose from different angle – without deviating from the main topic. In other words, the verses in a surah constitute a whole in terms of the topic, and a relation and harmony is observed among the introduction of the surah and its other sections as well as its beginning and the end.
The subject on which all those studies lay particular emphasis is the fact that the sequence of the verses has a logic and coherence. In other words, surahs are structures with inherent coherence and intellectual integrity with diligently drawn limits. Consequently, commenting on verses in a surah as if they were independent or making “narrow context” explanations serving to determine the relation of a verse with the previous or next one is just inadequate in identification of the essential target and purpose of the surah.
Weber ideal tip kavramı ile ilk olarak tipoloji oluşturmuş sosyolojik araştırmalarında ideal-tip kavramsallaştırmasını yöntem olarak çok sık kullanmıştır. Weber’le birlikte Le Bras, Allport, Troeltsch ideal-tipleştirmeyi kullanmış, Türk sosyal bilimciler arasında Mardin, Taplamacıoğlu, Kırbaşoğlu da Türk toplumu üzerinden birer tipoloji denemesinde bulunmuş. Günay da Almanya’da yaşayan Türk işçileri üzerine bir dindarlık tipolojisi geliştirir. Günay, Türk işçileri için üç tip kullanmaktadır. O, birincisini geleneksel dindarlık çerçevesinde gelişen ‘Geleneksel Halk Dindarlığı’, ikincisini “Radikal İslamcı Eğilimler”, Üçüncüsünü ise “Seküler Dindarlık” olarak sınıflandırmaktadır. Günay’a göre, ‘Geleneksel Halk Dindarlığı’ Türk işçi toplulukları içerisinde yaygın bir şekilde bulunur. Bu dindarlık biçiminde bireysel ve entelektüel dindarlık boyutları oldukça zayıftır. İkici gruptakileri Günay, ‘Radikal İslamcı Eğilimler’ tipolojisi olarak isimlendirmektedir. Bu gruptakilerde anti-laik, anti modern eğilim ve söylemlere rast gelinmektedir. Modernleşmeye uyum sağlayamamış tipik bir Batı karşıtlığını esas alan tepkisel oluşumların Avrupa’da uzantısı olduğunu vurgular. Günay, üçüncü tipolojide olanları ‘Seküler Yönelimler Tipolojisi’ olarak isimlendirmektedir. Bu gruptakiler, dini bireysel bir olgu olarak yaşayan kitledir. Din, bu gruptakiler açısından kültürel bir aidiyeti ve Avrupa değerleri burada yaşayanlar üzerinde etkilidir. Bu grup üzerinde din hem bilişsel düzeyde hem de sosyal düzeyde belirleyiciliğini yitirmektedir. Bu çalışma, din sosyolojisi araştırmalarında anlamayı kolaylaştıran ideal-tip kavramına vurgu yapmaktadır. Makalenin amacı, Ünver Günay tarafından Batı Avrupa’ya işçi göçü sonucu giden Türk işçilerinin dini anlayışlarını çözümlemek için oluşturulan ideal-tiplerin kaynağını, diğer ideal-tiplerle olan benzerliklerini incelemektir. Çalışmada, betimleme ve eleştirel analiz yöntemi esas alınmaktadır. Bu çalışma, diasporada yaşayan Müslüman göçmenleri anlamak için bilimsel çalışmalara ve yeni tipoloji oluşumuna katkı sunacaktır.
Weber often used the ideal-type conceptualization as a method in his sociological research. Ideal-types facilitate the determination of the relationship between cultural values and related issues. The most important aspect of the ideal-type conceptualisation is that the social scientist leaves aside his or her own individual judgments.
Religiosity has been made the topic of ideal-typologies by both foreign and domestic social scientists. Religiosity is a matter that is expressed in a different way from the secular behavior and is practically vital. Therefore, it has observable features. Weber, Mensching Gabriel Le Bras, G. Allport, Troeltsch all used this method. Among Turkish social scholars, Mardin, Taplamacıoğlu and Kırbaşoğlu have also tried a typology on Turkish society. Mardin makes a distinction between the Islam adopted by the state administrators or the elite and that of the people. Taplamacıoğlu finds five classes: Unofficial, Administrative Divine, Religious Whole Ornamental Group, Divine Quarter, Sofia Quartz. Kırbaşoğlu develops the concept of 'Catechism Religiosity'. It examines the concept of 'Catechism Religosity' by dividing it into six parts. It is in the form of 'depthless religiosity', 'narrowed servitude', 'formative-mechanical religiosity', 'anachronistic religiosity', 'male dominant' and 'adult centered religiosity', 'psychopathological religiosity'. Kanık evaluated the religios attitudes and behaviors of Turkish young people born in Germany in three types. He was inspired by Günay’s work. According to the study, the first type is the ‘Secular Euro-Islamic Religiosity’, which sees Germany as its own homeland, in secular character. They continue their life integrated in this framework. Secondly, there is a group that believes that Islam and Muslims can rise economically and socially with a success that will take place in the political arena. These groups are defined as 'Political-Islamic Religiosity'. In the third group are those who are far from the political and secular mindsets, and who deeply understand Islam and its teachings. The typology in which the young people in this group are found is called 'Intellectual-Spiritual Religiosity'.
Günay uses three types. He categorizes the first as 'Traditional Folk Religiosity' which develops in the frame of traditional religiosity, the second as 'Radical Islamist Tendencies' and the third as 'Secular Religiosity'. According to Gunay, ‘Traditional Folk Religion’ is widespread among Turkish workers’ communities. He lists the characteristics of this religiosity as follows. It is nourished from knowledge of catechism and verbal culture. Therefore, the emotional, mystical, charismatic, mythological, ceremonial, and symbolic aspects of a strong form of religiosity emerges. In this form of piety, the dimensions of individual and intellectual piety are rather weak.
The other group Günay calls 'Radical Islamist Tendencies' typology. These groups are reminiscent of the Haricîs, who were the first Islamic sects. In fact, according to him, in these groups anti-secular, anti-modern tendencies and rhetoric have emerged as a result of some migrants’ incompatibility with the mainstream society. A typical anti-Western sentiments as the basis because of not adapting to modernization in Europe. These groups provide solidarity in Europe by positing themselves as examplars of ethnic and religious identities. According to Günay, the most basic emphasis of this group is the religious ideological and political direction. Within themselves, these homogeneous groups are also subject to various regulations by the researchers. Günay calls the third typology ' Secular Religiosity’. Religion as a cultural belonging is the essential aspect of this group. Religion develops a practice of living away from normative, identifiable constructs. Therefore, the community is completely removed from mosque-centered religious practices. European values affect this group’s attitudes. In this group, it is undoubtedly the most important point that Günay draws attention to that the beliefs and norms of the Islamic religion should be interpreted in the context of universal morality by reducing secondary values. Traditional beliefs and norms are left at the margins and are reduced to a cultural form. Religion loses its determinism regarding both cognitive and social life.
Along with immigration to Europe from the 1960s, the patterns of Islamic practice are changing and new forms of religiosity are emerging. According to Gunay, the form of religiosity that changes with migration is a course that develops from 'Migrant Islam' to 'European Islam.' A new Islamic interpretation and Muslims are born in Europe. In this context, the concepts of 'European Islam' and 'European Muslim' are emerging. In this context, Günay explains different forms of Islam in different ethnic backgrounds living in Europe. According to Gunay, the dominant religious characters of the Muslim population living in different countries of Western Europe today are identified by the greatest number of different ethnicities of Muslims. So, the European Islamic model is considered as a mosaic instead of a homogeneous understanding of Islam. He emphasizes their differences from one another. Therefore he adds an ethnic dimension to European Islam.
Ölüm, yaşayan tüm canlı varlıklar için kaçınılmaz bir olgudur. Ölümün kaçınılmaz gerçekliğinin bilincinde oluşu insanı, diğer canlılardan ayıran en önemli özelliğidir. Bu çalışmanın amacını, üniversite öğrencilerinin ölüm kaygısı düzeyleri ile benlik saygısı, dini dünya görüşleri ve hayatın amacı düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmaya, bir devlet üniversitesinin farklı bölümlerinde öğrenim gören 711 öğrenci (% 64.1 kadın ve % 35.9 erkek) gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Veriler, Benlik Saygısı Ölçeği, Dini Dünya Görüşleri Ölçeği, Hayatın Amacı Ölçeği, Ölüm Kaygısı Ölçeği ve kişisel bilgiler formu yardımıyla toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde nicel analiz tekniklerinden yararlanılmıştır. Veriler SPSS 23 istatistiksel paket programı yardımıyla çözümlenmiştir. Çalışmanın bulgularına göre, ortalama puanlarında benlik saygısı, dini dünya görüşü ve hayatın amacı değişkenleri “yüksek” ve ölüm kaygısı değişkeni ise “orta” bir değer almıştır. Bağımsız gruplar için t-testi sonucunda benlik saygısı, dini dünya görüşleri, hayatın amacı ve ölüm kaygısı değişkenlerinde kadınların ortalama puanları erkeklere göre anlamlı olarak daha yüksek bulunmuştur. ANOVA sonucunda ise fakülteler arasında dini dünya görüşleri ve hayatın amacı; sınıflar arasında ise dini dünya görüşlerinde anlamlı bir farklılık tespit edilmiştir. Ölüm kaygısı ile benlik saygısı, dini dünya görüşleri ve hayatın amacı değişkenleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki saptanmamıştır. Hiyerarşik regresyon analizi sonucunda ise cinsiyet değişkeninin ölüm kaygısındaki varyansı anlamlı olarak açıkladığı bulunmuştur. Bulgular, ilgili alan yazını temelinde tartışılmış ve bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
Death is an inevitable fact for all living beings. Differently from other living beings, human beings are aware of the reality of death. The subject of this study is examining the relationships between death anxiety and self-esteem, religious worldviews, purpose in life of college students. In this respect, it is assumed that death anxiety has negative relationships with self-esteem, religious worldviews and purpose in life.
Living with the reality and inevitability of death is a source of anxiety for human beings (Solomon, et al., 1991). This is explained by Terror Management Theory of Social Psychology. According to this theory, people focus on increasing their self-esteem levels to reduce this anxiety since self-esteem acts as a buffer against possible anxiety caused by the awareness of human mortality (Rosenblatt, et al., 1989). Self –esteem is the attitude of an individual towards him- / herself that also gives information about the individual (Mruk, 2006). Religious worldviews is the belief of an individual in spirituality, supernatural, purpose in life, the existence of another life and the creator (Henze, 2006). Death takes a large part in Islamic religion. It is interpreted not as an annihilation but a transformation (Yıldız, 2014). Religion includes economic, political, social and cultural areas; ethical rules, values and practices that affects all aspects of life (Marshall & van Saanen, 2007). Religion is a worldview and creates a value system (Mehmedoğlu, 2013). The purpose in life is described as a feeling that both the present and the past have a meaning (Ryff, 1989). If an individual has no meaning in life and no specific purpose in life, this creates anxiety (Yalom, 1999). The most important goal of an individual is the search for meaning in life which is also the fundamental motivational sources of an individual (Frankl, 2000). The suppression or inhibition of the search for meaning in life creates anxiety (Burrow, et al., 2014).
In total of 711 (64.1 % women and 35.9 % men) college students from different departments of a state university in Middle Anatolian region voluntarily participated in this study. Data were collected utilizing Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), Religious Worldviews Scale (Goplen & Plant, 2015), Purpose of Life Scale (Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1964), Death Anxiety Scale (Thorson & Powell, 1992) and personal information form which is developed by the authors of this study. Self – esteem scale was developed by Rosenberg (1965) and adapted to Turkish language by Çuhadaroğlu (1986). This scale consists of 10 items. The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient is 0,84 and split –half reliability coefficient is 0,80. The religious worldviews scale was developed by Goplen & Plant (2015) and adapted to Turkish language by Kuşat & Bulut (2016). This scale consists of 19 items. The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient is 0,88 and split –half reliability coefficient is 0,86. The purpose of life scale was developed by Crumbaugh & Maholick (1964, 1969) and adapted to Turkish language by Kıraç (2015). This scale consists of 16 items. The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient is 0,90 and split –half reliability coefficient is 0,85. The death anxiety scale was developed by Thorson & Powell (1992) and adapted to Turkish language by Karaca & Yıldız (2001). This scale consists of 25 items. The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient is 0,86 and split –half reliability coefficient is 0,83.
In analyzing the data, quantitative analyses techniques were used. Means and standard deviations of descriptive statistical techniques were applied. In comparing two independent groups: t-test for independent groups, in comparing more than two groups: variance analysis, in examining the relationships between the variables: correlation analysis and in examining the explained variance in death anxiety: hierarchical regression analysis from inferential statistical techniques were used. Data were analyzed by SPSS 23 statistical package program.
According to the findings of this study, in mean scores self-esteem, religious worldviews and purpose in life variables have ‘high’ and death anxiety has ‘medium’ score. Independent groups t – test results showed that women’s self-esteem, religious worldviews, purpose in life and death anxiety scores are significantly higher than men’s scores. ANOVA results showed that there are statistically significant differences in religious worldviews and purpose in life scores between faculties and differences in religious worldviews scores between classes. There are no statistically significant relationships between death anxiety and self-esteem, religious worldviews, purpose in life. Lastly, according to the hierarchical regression analysis results, gender explains the variance significantly in death anxiety. The findings were discussed on the basis of relevant literature and some suggestions were made.
Ülkemizde son yıllarda din eğitimi alanında önemli çalışmalar yapılmaktadır. Yeni okul binalarının yapılması, öğretim programlarının güncellenmesi, sınıfların teknolojik alt yapılarının iyileştirilmesi bunlardan bazılarıdır. Bununla birlikte, bu alanda çeşitli sorunların yaşandığı da herkes tarafından dile getirilen bir husustur. Sıkça tartışma konusu yapılan alanlardan birisi de imam hatiplerdir. Bu tartışmalarda vurgulanan hususlardan birisi de bu kurumların sayısının önemli bir gelişme gösterdiği ancak, niteliğinin bu paralelde ilerlemediği yönündedir. İşte bu çalışmada söz konusu kurumlarda görev yapan meslek dersi öğretmenlerinin öğretim materyallerini geliştirme durumları ele alınmıştır. Kayseri örnekleminden araştırmaya katılan öğretmenlerin materyal geliştirme konusundaki ilgi ve yönelimleri, yaşadıkları sorunlar, materyal temin ederken ve hazırlarken izledikleri süreçler çeşitli sorularla yoklanmaya çalışılmıştır.
Araştırmada söz konusu öğretmenlerin imam hatip meslek derslerinde araç ve materyal kullanma konusunda birtakım sorunlar ve eksiklikleri bulunmakla birlikte, dikkate değer bir ilgiye sahip oldukları, söz konusu materyalleri ağırlıklı olarak hazır olanlardan seçtikleri, bununla birlikte, belli oranda da olsa kendilerinin de materyal geliştirme çalışmaları yaptıkları anlaşılmıştır. Bahsi geçen öğretmenlerin internetten sıkça temin ettiği materyaller; kavram haritaları, çalışma yaprakları, ppt. sunuları ve kısa filmlerdir. Onlar öğrencilerine de materyal hazırlatma çalışmaları yaptırmaktadırlar. Öğretmenlerin kendi materyallerini hazırlarken en çok dikkat ettikleri hususlar sırasıyla, konuya uygunluk ve öğrenci özelliklerine uygunluktur. Eğitimde çok önemli olan “eğitim hedeflerine uygunluk” seçeneğini ise ancak birkaç öğretmen belirtmiştir. Materyal geliştirme konusunda bayan öğretmenlerin erkek öğretmenlere göre daha duyarlı olduğu, aynı şekilde kıdemi düşük öğretmenlerin 20 yıl gibi daha yüksek kıdemi olan öğretmenlere göre daha istekli oldukları, yine imam hatip ortaokullarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin, imam hatip liselerinde görev yapanlara göre daha ilgili oldukları anlaşılmıştır.
This study was aimed at determining the situation of material development of Imam Hatip School vocational courses teachers. The research is a survey model. According to this research results was made in Kayseri sample, Majority of the participant teachers suffer from inappropriate materials to the students and topics at their lessons. Most of teachers come to schools with making preparation. Participant teachers continue using current teaching materials and also try to prepare their own materials.
Introduction and Purpose of the Study
The Religious educational process has four basic variables. These are students, teachers, programs and the environment. The most important of these variables are the teachers. The teachers must/should plan, apply and evaluate the educational process. They should use teaching methods and tools in this process.With the development of technological possibilities, the number of teaching materials that can be used in religious education has increased. Educational materials can make lessons more fun and educational, and it can offer to students a rich learning experience. For this reason, effective use of materials by the religious teachers can contribute to the reduction of problems such as indifference, reluctance and boredom in religious education.
The main purpose of this research was to determine the situation of material development by the Imam Hatip School vocational courses teachers. In this context, some questions asked are;
1. Are they having trouble finding instructionalmaterials? What are these troubles?
2. How much did they develop educational materials in the process of Religious education?
3. How did they get them?
4. What kind of materials did they develop most?
5. What are they paying attention to when developing them?
6. What kind of problems they have experienced in this process? And similar questions are asked and answered
The research is a survey model that describes the current situation. In the study datas were gathered by questionnaire on 82 Imam Hatip School vocational courses teachers in Kayseri province. 21 IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software program was used to test hypotheses generated for the purposes of research. Quantitative analyses methods (means, percentages), were used in analyzing the data. 56 % of the participants are men and 44 % are women. % 45 of them working at imam hatip high school, % 39 are imam hatip midle school, % 16 are both of them.
Results and Discussion
According to this research results, the participant teachers say they are having trouble finding instructionalmaterials. Some of the teachers have said that they have not prepared their materials because of the inadequacy of the class hours. Nevertheless, they do not see themselves inadequate in material development, and the proportion of teachers who prepare their own materials has been expected to be low.They generally prefer to use ready-made materials.They provide materials from their colleagues and internet sites. The worksheet, the concept map, the slide are the materials that they get the most from the internet. The materials they do not prepare are short films, puzzles and slides. The proportion of teachers who prepare material for their students is also very low.Most of the materials that prepared by their students 13 % model-real goods and 11% worksheets).
When the teachers preparing materials for religious instruction, they were paying attention to the content compliance most. To be suitable for students’ features and grade follow them. A little number of teachers say that they are developing materials according to the teaching aims and functions. It is concluded that imam hatip secondary school teachers are more sensitive about developing materials than İmam Hatip High School Teachers. Additionally, female teachers are developing these materials more often than the male teachers.
At the end of this survey, it was discovered, despite the fact that the teachers were having trouble finding instructionalmaterialsthey did not develop their Instructional materials.Because, a large group of teachers, 82.5%, saw themselves as lacking in teaching technology and material development. Also, according to this data and researches done in the past years. Religious Education Teachers are developing their materials have increased but some teachers (who are working at İmam hatip high schools) don’t know functions of materials and they don’t develop them in their lessons.
The issue can be focused especially on teachers Imam Hatip High School lessons. These suggestions can be expressed in the light of these results. The Ministry of National Education, The General Directorate of Religious Education can work on this subject. Information and materials banks can be created in virtual environment where the institutions for the imam hatip school’s courses, also material samples. It is possible to increase the number of sharing sites where materials related to the field of Religious Education, especially Imam Hatip High School lessons are collected. And they can be give information about Instructional Technology and Material Development course for Imam Hatip Schools teachers. Further research can be done in this subject.
1960-1980 arası yıllar, siyasal değişimlerden sosyo-ekonomik ve kültürel dönüşümlere, demokratikleşmeden sanayileşmeye kadar ülkemiz için pek çok açıdan dikkat çekici bir dönemdir. Kırsal bölgelerden kentlere yönelik yoğun bir göçün görülmesi, orta sınıfın ekonomik sıçrama yaşaması ve özellikle de kitle iletişim araçlarının gündelik hayata doğrudan katılmaya başlaması, norm ve değerlere yönelik farklı tutumların baş göstermesine ve dolayısıyla eski ile yeni, geleneksel ile modern olanın salınımlar yaşamasına sebebiyet vermiştir. Söz konusu toplumsal ve kültürel dönüşümlerden kaçınılmaz olarak dini hayat da etkilenmiştir. Çoğunlukla çeviriler yoluyla ülkemize dahil olan siyasal grupların seçkinci eğilimleri, 1970’li yılların sonlarında belli ölçüde toplumsal bir taban bulmuş gözükse de ülkemizin kendine has toplumsal ve kültürel dinamikleri, bu eğilimlerin akış mecrasını değiştirmiştir. Ülkemizde ilk kez bu dönemde gözlemlenen siyasal İslam kimliğinin kamusal etkisi, birtakım tarikatlar, medya ve bazı yerel cemaatler aracılığıyla kırılmaya çalışılmış, yeni bir zihni dönüşümle gündelik hayat tekrar kurgulanmıştır. Yeni kentli toplumsal kesim, kimliğin ve kültürün siyasallaşmasından uzak kalamazken, dini hayatını gündelik yaşamı içerisinde meczetmiş geniş halk kesimlerinin bu siyasallaşmaya iltifat etmedikleri ve tarihsel-kültürel unsurlarla harmanlanmış bir dindarlık yorumunu benimsedikleri anlaşılmaktadır. Bu bakımdan söz konusu evre, Türkiye dindarlığının yaslanmış olduğu sosyolojik arka plana ve göstermiş olduğu seyre projeksiyon tutması açısından bize önemli açılımlar sağlamaktadır.
It can be said that modernization in Turkey has followed a three-step process. While the intellectual foundations of modernization are based on the Tanzimat; structural, political and institutional transformations are based on the Republican revolutions, and socioeconomic and cultural dynamics are based on the democratization and industrialization processes that have started after the 1950s. The political, economic and cultural changes, which have emerged in the third phase, have widened the ideological and cultural representations of modernization to the larger part of the society. One of the main driving forces of change is the democratic political transformation, and the other is socio-economic and cultural transformations that are characterized urbanization, industrialization and global modernization. Both processes, which have deeply impressed on social and daily life, have developed depending on some internal and external factors.
The period between 1960 and 1980 is a remarkable period for our country from political changes to socio-economic and cultural transformations, from democratization to industrialization. The intense migration of people from the rural areas to the cities, the economic leap of the middle class, and especially the mass media that has started to participate in everyday life, have caused to the different understandings related to norms and values. That situation has also caused tension between old and new, tradition and modern. The period between 1960 and 1980, which has been defined mainly concerning political developments but indeed has been experienced a rapid social change through urbanization and industrialization, represents a critical period in terms of the interaction between religious life and modernization.
Even if the project of change of the Turkish Republic has started at the level of socio-political structures, it is also related to secularization of the cultural world. However, because of the fact that historical and cultural dynamics of the society are strictly related to the religion, this project of change has not generated permanent values at the level of identity and personality. However, it can be said that the political aims of secularism have reached a certain success due to socio-economic and cultural developments after World War II. On the basis of this transformation, it is clear that there are socio-economic and socio-political changes in Turkish society in connection with global developments between 1960 and 1980. That period is a period that the relationship between centre and periphery and power balances have been changed. The shift of these balances and the movement of the periphery gradually into the center in this process, first of all, begin to take place together with the transition of multi-party life. Secondly, one of the most important factors is the development of a new bourgeoisie or middle class as a new power elites against the political center in this period. The strengthening of the middle class has ensured the development of the socioeconomic resistance of the periphery. In connection with this situation, civil society institutions such as associations, foundations and organizations have emerged. Therefore the power of the centre on periphery has decreased in this period. That change in the social and political structure is one of the important reasons for the empowerment of the religious persons and some Islamic sects.
The phenomenon of urbanization and industrialization, which are the main factors of change in this period, have led to a serious shake in the structure of society and it has become difficult for traditional religious understandings and interpretations to cope with increasingly new problems. This process, however, represents a stage in which traditional religious ideas and imaginations have started to change. The effects of change, while on one hand, have enabled to spread the modernization on the level of sociocultural dimension, on the other hand, have given power to the reactionary, compromising and syncretic interpretations of religion in civil-political life. In Turkey, the structural view of the religiosity between 1960 and 1980 and its relation with the change, first of all, have required a deep investigation about the development of religious institutions, organizations and movements with the social, cultural, and political backgrounds of the period.
Although the prevailing tendencies of political groups, which are mostly included to our country through translations, have found a certain social base at the end of the 1970s, the social and cultural dynamics of our country have changed the flow of these tendencies.
The public influence of the political Islamic identity observed firstly in our country has been diminished through some sects, the media and some local communities, and everyday life has been built again with a new mental transformation.
In terms of the flow of everyday life, religious life in the Turkish society has continued in the form of a folk religion that is articulated in popular culture because of the religious elements that are intertwined with culture. It is understood that while the new urban social segment cannot stay away from politicization of identity and culture, the widespread segments, which have embraced their religious life in their daily lives, have not demanded this politicization and have adopted a religiosity blended with historical-cultural elements. In many respects, the period between 1960 and 1980 in Turkey has provided insights in terms of showing sociological background and processes of Turkish religiosity.
Bu çalışmanın amacı, boşanma sonrasında başa çıkmada dini ve manevi etkilerin rolünü araştırmaktır. Makalede bireylerin kişilik özellikleri ve boşanma sonrasında kullanılan başa çıkma stratejileri; dini başa çıkma açısından incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden fenomenolojik araştırma deseni; veri toplama araçlarından ise yarı yapılandırılmış mülakat tekniği kullanılarak yapılan araştırmanın çalışma alanını İstanbul ilinde yaşayan katılımcılar oluşturmaktadır. Kadın ve erkek katılımcılardan onar kişi olmak üzere yirmi kişi ile görüşme yapılmıştır. Araştırmada katılımcılara boşanma sonrasında yaşadıkları maddi ve manevi problemler ile ilgili sorular yöneltilmiştir. Araştırma sonucuna göre boşanma sonrasında katılımcılar başa çıkma stillerinden ağırlıklı olarak aile ve arkadaş desteğine başvurmuşlardır. Bununla birlikte psikolog/psikiyatrist desteği, çalışmak, çocukların varlığı, kitap okumak, umut etmek ve müzik dinlemek katılımcıların başvurdukları başa çıkma yöntemleri arasında yer almıştır. Araştırma sonucuna göre katılımcılar özellikle evlenmek konusunda aceleci davrandıkları ve yanlış tercih yaptıkları için pişmanlık yaşamışlardır. Katılımcıların çoğunluğu boşanma sonrasında ekonomik sıkıntılar ve yalnızlık gibi problemler yaşasalar da zihinsel açıdan rahatladıklarını, gerginlikten kurtulduklarını ve daha mutlu olduklarını dile getirmişlerdir. Ayrıca katılımcıların dini başa çıkma stillerine başvurduğu; Allah’a karşı isyan etmedikleri; çoğunlukla dua edip Allah’tan yardım diledikleri görülmüştür. Ancak katılımcıların çoğunluğu eski eşlerini affedemediklerini belirtmiştir. Onlara karşı kırgınlık, öfke veya nefret gibi duyguların devam etmekle birlikte kendilerine yapılanların bir şekilde hesabının sorulacağını umut etmektedirler.
Divorce by people, it is an important turning point in terms of psycho-social. After divorce, individuals may have economic problems, child care with responsibility for the abandonment of the household, they can also experience psychological problems such as loneliness. For some, this situation leads to different decisions in their lives, such as remarriage, change of surroundings, and for some, they can remain a trauma that they can not forget until the end of their lives. These people are admitted to overcome the trauma of different coping styles.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of religious and spiritual influences in coping after divorce. Personality traits of individuals and strategies for coping after divorce; tried to examine the issue of religious achievement. Phenomenological research design from qualitative research methods; data collection tools are semi-structured interview technique and the study area of the research is composed of participants living in İstanbul province. In our study of religious and spiritual influences in the post-divorce process, we interviewed twenty divorced person, ten men and ten women. The majority of participants are middle-aged in adulthood; the level of education is high; people who have spent most of their lives in Istanbul and have certain professions. Referring to the marriage age of the participants, 9 persons between 25-30 years of age; 8 people between 19-24 years are married. Interviewees are predominantly married in the young adulthood. Especially among the female participants are those who are starting to work to make their living in the divorce process or afterwards. Participants generally mentioned that the decision to divorce was not immediate. Mostly they have told us that they made this decision two years ago. There are even participants who are waiting for the right time, such as children, to get a divorce.
Participants said that they have learned most religious information from school (9 people) and their families (9 people). The majority of respondents perceive themselves as religious (13 people); they also stated that their families were religious (12 people). Those who indicate that their ex-wife is religious (9 people) and slightly religious (8 people) are the weight.
Participants in the survey were asked questions about the material and spiritual problems they had experienced after the divorce. According to the results of the research, most of the participants expressed that they are mentally comfortable, they are relieved from tension and they are happier even though they have problems such as economic troubles and loneliness after divorce.
In our research, women in our society if it is received until the difficulties of being a divorced woman as the most female participants without worrying about divorce decree or social prejudices surrounding people's opinions. There are a majority of women who voiced that the priority is their own life. In this, the majority of the women participating in the interview can be the profession and the influence of their ages. However, even if the majority of women are working before the divorce, they are forced both materially and spiritually because they are both working and custody of the children. Nonetheless, being free in their lifestyles and decisions makes them happy. As stated by Bayraktar (2010: 90), women who have a high education level or a profession in the post-divorce period are stronger and more positive.
Participants are particularly impatient because they are hasty to get married and make mistakes. He also did not divorce earlier; there are those who regret that the old partner has tolerated it for a long time, waiting for the old partner to take too much of the bad treatment or to recover. In particular, some of the women, they think they misbehave because they get to do their jobs the top of their husbands. However, there are also those who regret not being more patient, concerned and understanding. In general, men are more positive attitude than women to get married again. Women are reluctant to remarry as they are suffering from the same problems.
According to the research result, there are participants who say that their children are happier after being divorced, as well as participants who can not fully understand how their children feel. In general, children who endorse the divorce of their parents are either aged or witnessed violence in the family. There are participants who go to psychiatrists and take medication. These people have reported that medicines are useful in overcoming the processes they live in. Some of them did not go to the psychiatrist because they thought it was expensive. There have also been people who point out that there is no need for treatment among the participants and that the person who knows himself does not have to go. Especially with children of female participants has said that they have to stand strong for their children. The medicines recommended by psychiatrists did not use the heavy future because of their disruption. Because they feel they have to stand and work for their children. This shows that the most powerful factor in coping with their children's trauma of divorce. Reading a book and listening to music are participants who said that they came good in the process.
Some of the participants did not fully fulfill their prayers for reasons such as increasing divorce and working hours after the divorce, depression experienced as a result of divorce; but they continue to pray. Women religious orientation but not in conjunction with the effect of divorce also been a move away against religion; they continued to pray especially. Some of them they look more religion if they are more than happy; in difficult times stated that the hypocrisy of addressing religion. Those who pointed out that they are religious / manuelized by men also mentioned the most prayer. As we have seen in our research, some participants hope that they will settle in the Hereafter with their former partner who are unfair to them. Even if the ex-spouses were religious, this situation did not lead them to move away from the religion or resort to negative religious coping methods. Among the methods of religious coping, positive coping method was used predominantly; They did not rebel against Allah; praying and asking Allah for help. But the participants did not forgive their ex-spouses; it is the belief that they have been unjust in the background. For this reason, the feelings of resentment, anger, or hatred that existed in them are believed to continue their relocation to Allah and their belief that one day they will be reconciled with their former partner.
Musa Yasası (Νόμος Μωϋσῆ), Yahudi inancına göre Yahudiler için bağlayıcı nitelik taşıyan kurallar bütünüdür. Yasa’nın hükümleri, İsrail’in Tanrı’sı ile Yahudiler arasında yapılan anlaşmanın tezahürüolarak Yahudi kutsal metinlerinde yer almaktadır. Hıristiyanlık çerçevesinde Musa Yasası meselesi ise, İsa’nın ölümünden bir süre sonra, onun cemaatinde başlıca anlaşmazlık konusu ve bölünme sebebi olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu mesele, sonradan İsrail’in Tanrı’sına ve İsa’ya iman eden öteki uluslardan (gentiles) insanların Musa Yasası’nın kurallarına da riayet edip etmeyecekleri bağlamındaki tartışmalar şeklinde tanımlanabilir. Bunun sonucunda İsa cemaatinde iki ayrı ekol ortaya çıkmıştır ve Yasa karşıtı ekol geleneksel Hıristiyanlığın temelini oluşturmaktadır. Bu yüzden bizzat İsa’nın, havarilerin ve ilk Kudüs cemaatinin bu konudaki düşünceleri büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu doğrultuda, İsa’nın Yasa konusundaki düşüncelerini nakleden İncil rivayetleri, geleneksel Hıristiyanlığın ve kilisenin Yasa’ya dair tarih boyunca savunduğu iddiaları tartışmalı hale getirmektedir. Çünkü İsa’nın Yasa konusunda iki yönlü bir tutum içinde bulunduğu anlaşılmaktadır: Birincisi, İsa Yasa’yı kesin bir dille onaylamaktadır; zira Yasa’yı Tanrı buyruğu olarak görmektedir. İkincisi, Yasa konusunda gelenekçi din bilginleriyle anlaşmazlık halindedir; zira Yasa’nın Yahudi kanaat önderlerince bilinçli şekilde yanlış yorumlandığını düşünmekte ve Yasa’yı bizzat Musa dönemindeki gibi orijinal bağlamında yorumlama iddiası taşımaktadır. Bununla beraber, hem Yeni Ahit’te yer alan bazı metinler hem de erken dönem Hıristiyanlık literatürü havarilerin ve ilk Kudüs cemaatinin de İsa sonrası dönemde Yasa’ya riayet halinde olduklarını kanıtlamaktadır. Bu olgulardan yola çıkılarak Yasa kavramının tarihsel çerçevesinin belirlenmesi, İsa’nın ve ilk Kudüs cemaatinin Yasa karşısındaki tutumunun değerlendirilmesi ve İsa’nın öğretisinin bu bağlamda yorumlanması önem taşımaktadır.
The Law of Moses (Νόμος Μωϋσῆ) is a body of laws which are binding on all Jews according to the Jewish belief. The precepts of the Law are found in the Jewish Holy Scriptures as an embodiment of the testament between the God of Israel and the Jews. Accordingly, Moses was given 613 laws (mitzwot) on Mount Sina by God. The Shabbat, allowed and forbidden matters, washing, all-body washing, cleaning specially prescribed regarding women’s menstrual terms and giving birth, the fast on the tenth day of the seventh month, the taxes to be paid, and many observances regarding rites are parts of it. The more well-known ten of these laws were recognized as “the ten commandments” even by the non-Jewish peoples and were respected as such. The Ten Commandments have even been interpreted as God’s eternal and unchangeable commands for all humanity.
In the context of Christianity, the issue of the Law of Israel happens to be an important matter dominating the congregation after the demise of Jesus which caused much disturbance and led to separation. This issue may be defined as the question of whether believers of Jesus, who originated from non-Jewish peoples (the gentiles) ought to follow the Mosaic Law which also includes precepts on the rites. As a result of the disturbance two main schools of thought emerged. As acknowledged, the anti-Law group has been established as the foundation of what later came to be the traditional Christianity. The opinions of Jesus himself therefore and of the apostles and the first congregation at Jerusalem happen to be important. It is also clearly seen that both the biblicals citations quoting Jesus’ opinion concerning the Law and the Christian literature of this early period question the legitimacy of the claims defended by the Church throughout history regarding the Law.
In this context, it appears that Jesus had a two-sided opinion regarding the Law. Firstly, Jesus acknowledges the Law unequivocally, as he takes the Law to be the commandment of God (τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ Θεοῦ). For example, the text of the Gospel known as that of Matthew, the gospel writer quotes Jesus as saying, he never had the intention of abandoning the Mosaic Law or abolishing it. According to Jesus, the Law will continue existing after him, and in totality will exist without the slightest change until the end of days. Again, Jesus states that those who are against the Law for this or that reason, or those who accept some part of the Law but not another part of it, or those who would rather change a slight matter in it, or who want to abolish a small matter in it, will be the ones to be destroyed when the Kingdom of Heaven is established. Secondly, Jesus is at odds with the traditional scholars and scribes of the Law. He takes the contemporary interpretation of the Law to be distorted and actually benefitting the social position of the current leaders of the Jewish congregation and that is why Jesus purports to be an interpreter of the Law just as in its original context in the days of Moses himself. In other words, by means of defending the Law itself in its original conditions, Jesus is situated against the opinion leaders of the Jewish congregation who claim to be representing the Law. In some cases, Jesus is depicted as being contrary to the traditionalist views among the Jews and also delivering criticisms against the traditionalist interpreters. Because, according to Jesus, the Law is the Commandment of God, what the Jews are obeying, while claiming to obey the Law, is actually the customs of the ancestors (τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων). Jesus therefore maintains that the sayings of Moses and the precepts of Law had subsequently been interpreted in a different fashion. He aims to interpret the Law in its context in the days of Moses or like Moses.
Jesus’ stance regarding the Law was adopted by the nucleus of his followers and also by some Christian congregations of the later periods. Many testimonies that can be gathered from these early centuries may be shown that the claim made by the Church that the Law was superseded cannot be seen to be generally accepted by the congregations of Jesus in that early period. For example, the congregation at Jerusalem which existed under the leadership of Jesus’ brother, Jacob (d. 62?) , is definitely known to have continued with the observance of the Law for quite some time after Jesus. There are other examples which show that there were congregations made up of gentiles which maintained that the observance of Jesus’ teaching goes along with obedience to the Law. Some of the second- and third- century “Christian” congregations were believers of Jesus while at the same time strictly obeying the Mosaic Law. The Ebionites, Nazarenes, Elcesaites are a few of these groups. Additionally, it is to be understood that the Mosaic Law was observed not only by the Jewish-Christian groups, but also by some congregations made up of gentile individuals. For example, the text known as the Didache(Διδαχή) or “the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles” present interesting testimony for this situation. The disputes in the early period of Christianity regarding the observance of the Law or its abandonment surfaced predominantly concerning the matter of the observance of the Shabbat—in addition to some other ritual matters. Apparently for these early Christian groups the Shabbat was still important enough to become a hotly-debated issue. For example, the ecclesiastical writer Epiphanius (d. 403) or the ecclesiastical historian Socrates (d. 439) reported that even in their time some Christian congregations held it important to observe the Shabbat. The claim, therefore, advanced by the Church, that the advent of the Messiah had abolished the validity of the Law, seems to have doubtful standing even in the fourth century.
Based on these premises, it is important to define the Law in its historical development, interpret Jesus’ stance regarding the Law and his teaching about it. Analyses of this matter will serve as a starting point in determining whether Jesus can still be taken as the originator of today’s Christianity or the traditional Church.
Türkiye’de ilahiyat fakülteleri felsefe ve din bilimleri bölümlerinde okutulan din sosyolojisi, din psikolojisi, dinler tarihi, din eğitimi vb. dersler, ilgili bilim dallarının bir alt dalı olarak konumlanmaktadır. Örneğin din sosyolojisi, hem genel sosyoloji ve metodolojiye (nesnellik) hem de ilahiyat alanına (normatiflik) bağlı bir disiplindir. Bu ikili durum birtakım sorunlara yol açmaktadır. Birincisi, bu öğrencilerin lisans düzeyinde ana disiplinlerin kuramsal ve metodolojik eğitimini yeterli düzeyde alamayışıdır. İkinci sorun ise öğrenci ya da araştırmacı rolünde ortaya çıkmaktadır. Lisansüstü eğitim, bu rolün kazanıldığı ve pratik edildiği süreçle ilişkilidir. Bu süreçte temel ilgi alanı da yöntem bilgisidir. Sosyal bilimlerde yöntem tartışmalarının doğası gereği, doğa bilimlerine bağımlılıktan kaynaklanan ikircikli bir yapısı vardır. Genelde bu, iki epistemolojiye dayanır: Pozitivist paradigma ve uzantısı nicel yöntem ile anlayıcı/yorumcu kuram ve buna dayalı nitel yöntem. Bu çalışmanın temel problemi, ana hatlarıyla ele alınan sosyal bilimlerde yöntembilimsel uygulamaların ilahiyat fakülteleri öğrencilerinin sosyal bilimler enstitüleri bünyesinde yaptıkları lisansüstü eğitim çalışmalarında nasıl bir karşılık bulduğu ve burada yapılan tezlerde karşılaşılan bazı yöntemsel sorunların ne olduğu ile ilgilidir. Bu çalışmada, Erciyes Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi mezunu öğrencilerinin Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü bünyesinde din sosyoloji alanında yapmış olduğu tezlerden hareketle, nicel-nitel araştırma modellerinin uygulanması ve objektif-normatif bakış açılarının uzlaştırılmasına/aşılmasına yönelik bulguların tartışılması amaçlanmıştır.
In social sciences there is an ambivalent structure because of the nature of the methodological discussions and the dependence on natural sciences. Generally, this is based on two paradigms: One of them is the positivist paradigm/the quantitative method based on sociological observation and trying to explain causality relation. The other one is interpretive theory/the qualitative method based on finding the intention/meaning behind of the behavior of the individual. The principles of 'objectivity' and 'reality' of the positivist approach have played an important role especially in the establishment and institutionalization processes of social sciences and has maintained its influence as theepistemological and ontological cornerstones of science for many years (Williams, 1999, p. 104). This understanding is more firmly held in our country around the social sciences and it has sometimes turned to an ideology used against all normative values/orientations (Taş, 2011, p. 68). Here, I think it is important to draw attention to the relation of such paradigms to social structures. For example, contrary to modernity, in the postmodern culture that challenges the understanding of “unified reality’ and great narratives, multiple reality and the associated epistemologies have brought together new methodological discussions (Bird, 2015, pp. 201-202). In this process the problems of objectivity and value-ladenness has arisen as considerable debates and criticisms and so in social sciences, some research methodologies have been developed based on value-independent/presupposition approaches as well as the principle of value-free (Lewins, 2011, p. 29).
The main problem of this study is how the graduates of the theology faculties use these methodological applications in social sciences in their dissertations within Institutes of Social Sciences and what the main methodological problems are in these dissertations. The sociological point of view is based here. Sociological perspective is based on sociological theory; sociological theory guides what and how to be investigated and contributes to the emergence of systematic research-based outcomes (Cole, 1999).
In this study, it is aimed to discuss the findings about the application of quantitative and qualitative research models, reconciliation of objective and normative perspectives, based on the theses prepared by the graduates of Erciyes University Faculty of Theology in the fields of sociology of religion and sociology of psychology within Institute of Social Sciences. The theses, prepared by students graduated from the departments of sociology and psychology, have been included into sample to create a comparison ground. From these discussions, it should not be understood these theses have been completed and accepted in this way.The problems discussed here are limited to the stages that the theses haven’t been completed and accepted.
In this area, we are faced with two fundamental problems that we have determined in the light of the related literature, thesis studies and our observations. The first is that the students of Faculty of Theology do not take enough theoretical and methodological education concerning the main disciplines (sociology, psychology, etc.) at undergraduate level.The second one emerges at the level of graduate education and at the role of researcher. These students gain a more normative and value-laden view because of the nature of the education they receive, and this can contradict a critical and objective view at the scientific level. Therefore, field courses given at the graduate level in Departments of Philosophy and Religious Sciences require an additional effort to compensate these deficiencies and contradictions in terms of epistemological and methodological.
We can summarize the findings we reached in this study as follows:
As a result, it is worthwhile to pay attention once again to the following points:
Secâvendî İlelü’l-Vukûfadlı eserinde vakfı altı kategoriye ayırmıştır. Eserinin giriş kısmında bu altı kategorinin tanımını yapmış, tanımları örneklerle açıklamış ve bu kategoriler için eserinde hangi rumuzları kullanacağını belirtmiştir. Onun yaptığı tasnifte yer alan kategorilerden birisi de “vakf-ı câiz”dir. Müellif vakf-ı caizi “Hem vakf yapmayı hem de geçiş yapmayı gerekli/mümkün kılan sebepler bulunduğu için durmanın da geçmenin de caiz olduğu vakf” şeklinde tanımlamıştır.
Günümüzde konuyla ilgili bazı eserlerde vakf-ı caiz, “vakfın ve vaslın caiz olmasıyla birlikte vakf yapmanın daha evla olduğu” yer diye tanımlanmaktadır. Yapılan tanımların etkisiyle olsa gerek, vakf-ı caiz genelde böyle bilinmektedir. Oysa “vakfın ve vaslın caiz olmasıyla birlikte vakf yapmanın daha evla olduğu” şeklindeki tanım, Secâvendî’nin terminolojisiyle, eserinin muhtevasındaki kullanımıyla ve ilgili ayetlerin tercihe şayan manasıyla birebir örtüşmemektedir. İlaveten, “vakf yapmanın daha evla olduğu” şeklindeki tanıma göre hareket edilip haddizatında vaslın evla olduğu ayetlerde vakf yapıldığı takdirde, ilgili ayetlerin mana bütünlüğü bozulacak ya da tercihe şayan manası gözden kaçmış olacaktır. Bu durum vakf-ı câiz kategorisinin mahiyetinin; Secâvendî’nin tanım ve kullanımının yanı sıra, ayetlerin manasına uygun olarak tespit edilmesini gerektirmektedir. Buradan hareketle kaleme alınan bu makalede, Secâvendî’nin vakf-ı caiz kategorisinin mahiyetinin ortaya konulması amaçlanmaktadır.
Sajāwandī, in his Ilelu'l-Wuqūf, divided waqfinto six categories. In the introductionof his work, he defined these six categories, explained the definitions with examples, and indicated which symbols would be used in his work for these categories. One of the categories in his classification is “al-waqf al-jāiz”. Sajāwandī defined “al-waqf al-jāiz” as “a waqfin which both stopping (waqf) and transition (wasl) are appropriate, because there are necessities and possible reasons for making stopping (waqf) and transition (wasl)”.
Today, in some works related to the subject, “al-waqf al-jāiz” is defined as “the place where it is better to make waqfalthough both stopping (waqf) and transition (wasl) are appropriate.” Perhaps by virtue of the definitions made, “al-waqf al-jāiz” is generally known as such. But description of “al-waqf al-jāiz” as “the place where it is better to make waqfalthough both stopping (waqf) and transition (wasl) are appropriate” does not coincide exactly with the terminology of Sajāwandī, and also does not tally with the usage in his work and the proper meaning of the related verses.
Firstly, in Sajāwandī’s definition of this kind of waqf, he did not pass a judgment such as “it is better to make waqf”. Furthermore, while analyzing Sajāwandī’s preference and methods, it would be seen that“al-waqf al-jāiz” is not qualified homogeneous, instead it is presented in variable forms. Likewise, in places where “ج”symbol which represents “al-waqf al-jāiz” in the context of his work, Sajāwandī gave different rulings. In some places he said it is preferable to make waqf, while he mentioned the preference of waslin some other places. Moreover, in some places, the author only confined himself to stating that waqfis permissible (jāiz). Basically, as regards places where Sajāwandī did not state his preference, it is possible to say that waqfis better in some, while waslis better in others. As for some other places where he didn’t state his choice, neither waqfnor waslsurpasses the other, but rather they are equally right. In that case, Sajāwandī’s usage of “al-waqf al-jāiz” categorization is in three different positions:
1. Places where Sajāwandī explicitly preferred the waslor stated reasons that necessitated the wasl
2. Places where Sajāwandī explicitly preferred the waqfor stated reasons that necessitated the waqf
3. Places where Sajāwandī did not in any way declare his preference.
In addition to this, it is possible to divide places where he did not state his preference into three:
a. Despite Sajāwandī not stating his preference, places where waslis more appropriate
b. Despite Sajāwandī not stating his preference, places where waqfis more appropriate
c. Places where wasland waqfare equally accepted right.
This being the case, it could be said that “al-waqf al-jāiz” according toSajāwandī’s usage amounts to five situations. In this case, the definition “the place where it is better to make waqf although both stopping (waqf) and transition (wasl) were appropriate” relating to “al-waqf al-jāiz” only tallies with two of the five situations. In other words, it only covers places where the author preferred waqfand places where it is possible to say that waqfis betteralthough he did not state any preference. Considering the other three situations, the definition in question does not cover Sajāwandī’s terminology and his usage in the content of his work. Consequently, the said definition is wrong in these three positions: The places where the author had chosen to make wasl, places where it is possible to say that waslis betteralthough he did not state any preference, and places where the two are equally appropriate. In addition to this, in case the “waqfis more appropriate” definition is acted upon and waqfis made in verses where waslis actually better, the relevant verses either loses their semantic completeness or their proper meaning goes unnoticed. In such case, there is risk of defeating the purpose of sajāwands, which primary aim is to ensure proper recitation.
In order to avoid this risk, the first and easiest thing to do is amending the mistakes in the definitions that does not tally with Sajāwandī’s definition and application. In other words, definitions such as “it is better to make waqfalthough both stopping (waqf) and transition (wasl) are appropriate” or “waqfand waslare equally appropriate” should be transformed back to the authentic state of the author’s terminology and application. Moreover, in definitions to be made, there should be comprehensive details of the author’s usage. This little amendment is supposed to form foundation for the spread of the right information.
The amendment stated above can contribute to the establishment of right information. However, in the final analysis, there is not any differentiation that show different positions of “al-waqf al-jāiz” in Mushafsin Turkey but only there is “ج”symbol. Therefore, during recitation of the Qur’ān it is difficult to decide in which places waqfor waslis preferred or in which places the two are equally appropriate. Hence, in order to realize the application that tallies with authentic meaning of the verses, there is need to create ideas towards the establishment of a system that conforms to the whole of “al-waqf al-jāiz”category. Thus, “al-waqf al-jāiz” category will be properly define to suit the proper meaning of the verses, and also Sajāwandī’s definition and his usage. This article is aimed at presenting the nature of the “al-waqf al-jāiz” category, within the frame of the usage in Sajāwandī's worknamely Ilelü’l-Wukûfand the meaning of related verses.
Şeytan araştırmalarında Yahudi-Hıristiyan Batı dünyasında iyi bilinen Lilith’in kökeni Sümer’e kadar uzanır. Lilithadı Sümercede “hava, rüzgâr” anlamına gelen lílkökünden türemiş ve etimolojisinde var olan hava unsuru bu ada ruhsal varlık boyutu kazandırmıştır. Terim Akkadçaya lilītuşeklinde geçerek tüm semitik dillere yayılmıştır. Babil’de rüzgârın yıkıcılığına ve şehvete hükmeden dişi ruh ve Fırtına Tanrıçası olarak kendisinden korkulan Lilith,Mezopotamya’dan Suriye-Filistin bölgesine kadar tüm Levant’a yayılmıştır. Gılgamış Destanı’nda Tanrıça’yla kurulan münasebeti, zamanla önce rahibelik kurumuna, ardından Tanrıça’nın kendisiyle özdeşleşmesine kadar gitmiştir. Ataerkil zihniyetin yerleşmesiyle, cazibesiyle erkekleri tuzağa düşüren ve bebekleri öldüren şeytani bir karaktere dönüşmüş ve Tanrıça’nın sıfatları da bu yöne doğru evrilmiştir. Bu özellikleriyle Yahudi mitolojisine geçen Lilith, kısır ve seksualiteye sahip en büyük dişi şeytan olarak kötülüğün zirvesine oturmuştur. Onun Yahudi din ve anlayışına bir şeytan olarak girişi Yeşaya 34:14’deki atıfla başlamıştır. Bu pasajda “tüm kötülüğün lideri” olarak anılan Lilith, Yahudi şeytan araştırmalarında kilit isim haline gelmiştir. Ana Tanrıça’yla özdeşleştirilmesiyle Yahudiliğin tanrıça tapımına karşı en kuvvetli argümanı kabul edilmiştir. Yahudi literatüründe başta Âdem’in Havva’dan önceki ilk eşi olmak üzere İsmâil’in torunu Naama ve Saba Melikesi gibi pek çok kötü kadınla özdeşleştirilerek Eril Tek Tanrı karşısındaki en büyük dişi düşman olarak kabul edilmiştir. Adının Tora’daki yaratılış pasajlarının yorumlarına dahil edilmesiyle, “Âdem’in İlk Karısı” ve Havva’nın suç ortağı unvanını alarak genel manada tüm kadınların şeytan addedilmesi anlayışına hizmet etmiştir.
It has been considered that Lilith derived from Sumerian language origin ‘líl’ means “air, wind”, and was transferred to Akkadian language as lilītu. Lilith name is firstly encountered in Epic of Gılgamesh as a wrapped snake around Huluppu Tree of The Great Mother Goddess Inanna. As is seen in this epic, in early ancient times, Lilith is a female demon in snake form. Therefore, she has been identified with Lamashtu and Lamia which are snake forms in most cultures of Mesopotamia and Levant. It has been known that both are infanticides. Because of this identification Lilith has been described as “infanticide” until today.
On the other hand, in the ancient times, Lilith has not accepted only as a demon. Her position in the eye of community always straddled the line between godlikeness and wickedness. Because in the period of Sumerian-Babylonian, in which Inanna (Ishtar) is glorified by name “Queen of Heavens and Earth”, the belief predominated that the Goddess is a resource of all kinds of beauties and abundance as well as warfare and destruction. By means of this high prestige of the Goddess, it has been known that the religion of the Goddess had emancipated to women especially in her capital Uruk and in most city-states. More particularly the women who are called Kadishtu,means “sinless, stainless and lily”, had monopolized agricultural economics, services of the temple of the Goddess and scholarly traditions. This position exhibits the superior social status which could be bestowed on a woman in those times. In this period, Lilith has continued her demonic character. On the other side, she has been identified with Inanna (Ishtar) and she has symbolized the harlotry of the temple. On that secondary sense Lilith has become to represent the negative sides of the Goddess with her characteristics such as sexuality, aggression and misandry. The fact that Lilith has begun to represent the negative sides of the Goddess has enabled the belief that the Goddess is baleful. Thus, the Goddess had become the focus of vulgarity, combativeness, immorality and all evils. For this reason, Inanna/Ishtar had been narrated as an aggressive goddess in myths more often.
When Jahwism-Judaism began to settle in Levant region in terms of politics and religion, Lilith who had identified the religion of Goddess and demonic characters, has become the villain in the battle of Judaism against the religion of Goddess. She crossed into Jewish mythology with all her characteristics and here she has reached the peak of evil as the most dangerous feminine demon with her infertile and salacious character. First and only reference to Lilith in Hebrew Bible is in Isaiah 34:14. Her adventure in Jewish mythology has started with this reference. In this pasuk, Lilith has been mentioned as a metaphor of God’s wrath to people of Edom which is the greatest enemy of Israel. Accordingly, Lilith, the Virgin of ruins and wild lands, has been described as an enormous pain which would take Edom to the age of chaos before genesis. In this passage, she is a symbol of terror which the Holy One YHWH spreads to the polytheist people. In a sense, non-believers suffered the wrath of God through her.
In the Rabbinic period, the scholars accepted the myth of Lilith as it was in the ancient period and adopted it to the Jewish culture. They portrayed Lilith as a dangerous feminine devil who seduces men and causes women to suffer a miscarriage. In the Midrashic literature she has been referred as the reason of all evil factors in the history of humanity and Judaism. In accordance with this belief, in the stories of people of Edom in Hebrew Bible where they suffer fatalities, Lilith has been adapted to Esau and his devil Samael. In this new picture, she is the harlot wife of Samael and the feminine devil of Esau’s lineage and people of Edom which stands against Children of Israel.
In the late Midrashic period, the origin of Lilith has been traced all the way back to genesis. This once, Lilith is described as the first wife of Adam, who dissuaded Eve and caused to be expelled from the garden of Eden. By this interpretation, Jewish scholars not only have tried to clarify the paradoxical and ambiguous pasuks in Genesis, but also, they have reshaped the fall of humanity. Also, they have strengthened the religious basis of patriarchal Jewish mentality.
Today, the character of Lilith is influential on feminist Jewish women. Jewish women, who are alienated from the religious and social arena because of patriarchal religious Jewish idea, leap in action by means of feminist ideas. While some of them deny the religion and Holy Bible, others try to reconcile between feminist ideas and Holy Bible and pave the way for reinterpreting the religion. Particularly, for the latter, Lilith is an important symbol. She is the voice of challenging the male-dominated life style and the pioneer of the philosophical questioning.
Bu çalışma tefsir ilmi ile üslȗbu’l-Kur’an arasındaki ilişkiyi araştırmaktadır. Bu ilişki, Kur’an’ın beyan vasfının tabii ve zaruri bir sonucudur. Çünkü Allah Kur’an’ı, ihtiva ettiği mana ve maksatların muhatapları tarafından anlaşılması ve hayata geçirilmesi için indirmiştir. Bu itibarla muhataplarının yeteneklerini ve birikimlerini dikkate almıştır. Zira ne tek başına belagat ilimlerinin sözlü/yazılı bir kelam/metin hakkındaki kuramsal açıklamaları ne de betimleyici ve değerlendirici nakiller, o metnin muhatapları tarafından gerektiği gibi anlaşılmasını sağlayamaz. Sağlıklı bir iletişim için dil ve belagat kadar fesâhat da gereklidir. Fesâhat, mütekellim ile muhatabın müşterek bir sosyal, kültürel, zihinsel ve duygusal zeminde buluşmasını gerektirmektedir. Mütekellimin kastı muhatabının zihninde ancak fasih olması, yani kullandığı dilin açık ve anlaşılır olması halinde karşılık bulabilir. Bu koşul, Kur’an için de geçerlidir. Bu nedenle Allah, hitabını belagat ve fesâhat kaideleri çerçevesinde indirmiştir. Böylece hem onun içerdiği edebȋ incelikler dolayısıyla bir i‘cȃz vesilesi olmasını sağlamış hem de beyan olma işlevini yerine getirerek taşıdığı manaları muhatabının zihnine yaklaştırmış; muhatapla metin arasındaki mesafeyi mümkün olduğunca daraltmıştır. Kur’an bunu, belagat ve fesâhat özellikleri ile yapmıştır. Kur’an’ın beyan olması, onun nüzul dönemi Araplarının dil ve belagat konusundaki örfüne ve fesâhat anlayışlarına uygunluğu ile alakalıdır. İşte bu hikmet nedeniyle tefsir ilmi de Kur’an lafızları ve ibarelerinin anlamları ve delaletlerini tespit etmek veya çıkarsamak ve ulaştığı anlamların doğruluğunu indiği ortamın sosyal ve kültürel koşullarında denetlemek için o anlamları çevreleyen üslȗba, aynı zamanda Kur’an’ın üslȗbu olması itibarıyla başvurmuştur. Zira Kur’an lafızlarının hangi sözdiziminde, hangi zihinsel bağıntıda ve tarihsel bağlamda, kısca hangi üslȗpta, hangi manaya delalet ettiğini belirleyebilmek için üslȗbu’l-Kur’an’ı bilmek gerekmektedir.
It is a factual necessity for the Qur'an, which is a book sent as a foundation, to send its divine purposes and personalities to its counterparts within a certain history, to take into account the talents and accumulations of their first counterparts. For even if it is built at the top of the word, lore, and prayer, it can not have the qualities and qualifications to enable communication between the parties, as long as it does not correspond to the meaning of the recipient's consciousness in the mind. When it comes to the Qur'an, it is an ontological and epistemological question arising from the fact that the municipality is the Ztt-ı hymn, and therefore the nature of the address and of the communities is different. So it's a very sophisticated question. However, by being a clear statement of God, the Qur'an has been revealed to be read, understood, and experienced. In order to achieve this purpose, he used the communicator's communication tools, language and expressions; thus bringing the meanings and intentions of the subject closer to the mind of the subject and establishing a natural balance between himself and his interlocutor by using his words, his concepts and knowledge. It is in fact the wisdom of his being an obvious Arabic statement. The Method of Expression in Qur'an is one of the most concrete manifestations of this divine wisdom. Because of this wisdom, it is necessary to apply to the basil-Qur'an to understand, explain and interpret (tafsir and te'vil) activities in order to determine the meaning and the meanings of Qur'anic words and phrases. Because it is a divine word, it is necessary to know The Method of Expression in Qur'an in order to determine in which syntax of the Qur'an, in which style, in which mental / logic relation and historical context, which manifestation and what Allah's purpose is is required. As a consequence of this necessity, this article deals with the issue of üslȗbu'l-Qur'an with a divine intervention.
The Qur'an is a controversial word that uses the power of speech in a highly effective way through its original style. It is different from existing literary genres and divine / non-religious texts; in terms of verbal features it is more than all. There are no thematic or chronological arrangements in literary or scientific texts. There is a perfect harmony between the words and their meanings; even more than the mean words he carries. Their words are not too long to make the reader care, nor are they too short to make sense of their meaning. Cognitive, sensory and emotional levels living in different times and soils with the same phrases can address different people. Thanks to this style, he is contemporaneous with his own and with his believers at all times. At this point, eloquence is taking advantage of the possibilities of identification. It repeats some issues because of its importance; but it is understood that these expressions, which seem to reappear when they are read together with the textual and non-textual contexts, are not the former ones by their nature.
The Method of Expression in Qur'an, is a source of apprehension and frequent application of tafsir because of the possibilities of reaching the meanings which exceed the punishment and ink of the Qur'anic words and the simultaneous manifestation of the nas'in nüzulla due to divine intervention. Because the exponent is the expression of the presence of the speaker. In other words, it is a very comprehensive vernacular which expresses the reason why and how the caste-i hahin is charged to the words. then there is no possibility to be acquainted with the meanings and intentions of the Qur'an without knowing the original one. At this point, Tafsir is also benefiting from the knowledge of the Prophet, who will give the name of the state carvings together with his knowledge, nahiv, declaration, meȋnȋ and bedȋ ', and the history documents documenting the attitudes of the first interlocutors. In the solution of the grievances that the commentators are confronted with at the point of interpretation of the divine address, it is essential for the Araplar to understand the present and earlier beliefs of the lore, the linguistic customs, the period of the ignorance period and the poems of the poetry period and also the knowledge of the environment where the inspiration is descended and the influence of these factors on the formation of the Qur'an and thus. For Allah has not used an unknown meaning, a meaningless purpose, and a random style, regardless of the manners and customs of the Arabic language, even a single word. Otherwise, the accountant would have loaded a load on the takatin, which is against the wisdom that the Quran is a clear statement.
Bu makale on beşinci yüzyılda yaşamış olan ve İbnü’l-Arabî düşünce geleneğinin önemli takipçileri arasında yer alan Sâinüddin İbn Türke’nin, dedesi Sadreddin Ebû Hamîd Türke’ye ait olan Kavâidü’t-tevhîdadlı esere yazmış olduğu Temhîdü’l-kavâidadlı şerhini ele almaktadır. Temhîdü’l-kavâid, Sadreddin Konevî’nin Miftâhu’l-gayb’ı, Dâvûd Kayserî’nin Mukaddime’si ve Molla Fenârî’nin Misbâhu’l-üns’ü gibi nazarî irfân çizgisindeki önemli metinler arasında yer almaktadır. Sâinüddin İbn Türke, bu eserinde tasavvuf metafiziğini üst bir metafizik olarak inşa etmektedir. Bu doğrultuda felsefî ve kelamî varlık anlayışlarını istidlâli bir yöntemle iptal etmeye çalışmakta ve “varlık”ın dış dünyada teşahhus etmiş gerçek ve tek olduğunu delilleriyle ortaya koymaya çalışmaktadır. Ona göre varlık, bir kavram veya bir nesneye yüklem olacak bir şey değildir. Aksine dış dünyada gerçekliği olan bir şeydir. Bu eserde Sâinüddin İbn Türke, mezkûr eserlerdeki felsefî ve kelamî varlık anlayışı eleştirilerini ileri düzeylere taşımakta ve aynı zamanda sûfî varlık anlayışını ele alırken ortaya çıkabilecek aklî şüpheleri gidermeye çalışmaktadır.
Sâinüddin İbn Türke, İslam düşüncesinde uzun bir süre göz ardı edilen bir sûfîdir. Bundan dolayı onun Temhîdü’l-kavâidadlıeseri üzerine yapılan şerh, haşiye ve talîkat gibi çalışmaların da geç dönemlerde olduğunu görmekteyiz. Temhîdü’l-kavâid, ilk olarak İran medreselerinde irfân düşüncesine bir giriş olarak okutulmuş ve daha sonra da üzerine şerh ve haşiye gibi çalışmalar başlamıştır. Böylece Sâinüddin İbn Türke İslam dünyasında daha fazla tanınır olmaya başlamıştır.
This article will examine the work of Tamhîd al-Qawaîdof Sain al-Din Ibn Turka (1432), a significant follower of the tradition of Ibn al-Arabi thought in the fifteenth century. Tamhîd al-Qawaîdis a commentary on the work Qawâid al-Tawhîdwhich written by Sadr al-Din Abu Hamid Turka () who is grandfather of Sain al-Din Ibn Turka. In this article, Tamhîd al-Qawaîdis considered and compared with the works of Sadr al-Din al-Qunawî (673/1274), Dâwûd al-Qaysarî (751/1350) and Mulla Fanârî (834/1431). Tamhîd al-Qawaîd, like Sadr al-Din al-Qunawî’s Miftâh al-Ghayb, Dâwûd al-Qaysarî's al-Mukaddimaand Mulla Fanârî’s Misbâh al-Uns, is also an important opus in the mystical (irfân) tradition.
In this work Sain al-Din Ibn Turka is trying to build metaphysics of mysticism (tasawwuf) as an upper metaphysic. In the beginning of the work, Ibn Turka aims to determine the subject of the metaphysics of mysticism, because according to him, all sciences have subjects and their distinction from each other is according to their subjects. For Ibn Turka, the subject of the metaphysics of mysticism is the existence of Hâqq as al-Qunawî accepted. However Ibn Turka expresses this subject as al-Wujud al-Mutlaq/Being. Since the subject of the metaphysics of mysticism is al-Wujud al- Mutlaq, according to al-Qunawî and Ibn Turka, sufi metaphysics is superior to other sciences and even metaphysics expressed by philosophy. Mulla Fanârî considers the subject of Sufi metaphysics as the interaction of the Haqq with the universe, not the existence of the Haqq, in the commentary of al-Qunawî’s Miftâh al-Ghayb. For Mulla Fanârî because the essence of Haqq cannot be known, it cannot be the subject of Sufi metaphysics. On the contrary to Mulla Fanârî, Ibn Turka, as we have stated, identifies Sufi metaphysics as al-Wujud al-Mutlaq.
On the other hand, Ibn Turka tries to abolish the philosophical and theological understanding of being in Tamhîd al-Qawaîdwith a rational (istidlâlî) method and tries to reveal it with the evidence that existence is real and one in the external world. According to him, being is not a concept and it cannot be predicated to something. On the contrary, being (wujud) is something that individuates (tashahhus) in the external world. In this work, Sain al-Din Ibn Turka aims to solve the supposed doubts that can arise when he carries out criticisms of philosophical and theological understandings of existence. Ibn Turka advanced what al-Qunawî, al-Qaysarî and Mulla Fanârî did in his work.
Ibn Turka’s arguments about existence as an absolute, wajib, and single entity overlaps with the arguments that Davud al-Qaysarî and Mulla Fanârî had presented. Davud al-Qaysarî has dedicated to this problem the first chapter of Şarhu Fusus al-hikemwhich is a commentary on Ibn Arabi’s work. Here al-Qaysarî try to prove that wujûd is the wujûd of Haqq. According to him, the wujûd is itself necessary and does not accept none-existence (adam). Mulla Fanârî also mentions the five arguments that the being is absolute, wajip and one in his commentary Misbâh al-Uns. Fanârî, here expresses that the being must be absolute and necessary. Like other thinkers, the basic movement point of Ibn Turka is that non-existence cannot be against being. Because existence is necessary and absolute.
What is the most important thing which differ Ibn Turka from other mystics like al-Qunawî, al-Qaysarî and Mulla Fanârî? The most important point that differ Ibn Turka from the abovementioned mystics can be expressed as follows: Ibn Turka is a systematic critic on philosophers’ idea. He also advanced what al-Qunawî, al-Qaysarî and Mulla Fanârî critics of philosophy and theology (kalam). According to philosophers, being can be divided into necessary and possible. Ibn Turka tries to explain the dilemmas of this distinction in rational way.
In my opinion, Sain al-Din Ibn Turka is a mystic who is ignored for a long time in Islamic thought. But in recent times, it can be seen some commentaries, and glossaries (hashiya) written on Tamhīd al-Qawaîd. However, it should be noted that Ibn Turka’s work which called Tamhîd al-Qawaîdcan be considered the reporter of the synthesis which Mulla Sadra did. Mulla Sadra tried to make a synthesis between Mashhāi, Isrākī and Irfanī tradition. On the other hand, Tamhîd al-Qawaîdwas taught in Iranian schools by Sayyid Riza Larijani as an introductory to Irfan readings. The first study on Tamhîd al-Qawaîdis Muhammad Rīzhā Kumshēī’s commentary. Then Mirza Muhammad Kummî continued this tradition. The tradition of reading Tamhîd al-Qawaîdis continuing in our times.
Felsefeciler, özellikle hukuk felsefecileri, genelde hukukun en temel idesi olarak niteledikleri adaletin tanımlanmasının zor, hatta imkânsız olduğunu ifade etmişlerdir. Müslüman bilginler açısından ise adalet esas itibariyle tanımlanabilir ve gerçekleştirilebilir bir şeydir. “Adalet nedir?” sorusuna, İslam bilginleri genel olarak “Adalet dengedir, orta noktadır.” cevabını vermişler ve bunu temelde biri bireysel diğeri toplumsal olmak üzere belli başlı iki düzey açısından birbirini tamamlar mahiyette açıklamışlardır. Bireysel düzeydeki denge daha çok ahlaki erdem bağlamında insanın şehevî, gazabî ve behîmî arzularının ifrat ve tefritten uzak olarak denge noktasında, orta bir seviyede tutulması anlamında alınır. Üç temel ahlaki erdem kabul edilen hikmet, iffet ve şecaat, bu arzuların aşırı uçlarından kaçınarak sağlanabilmekte ve bu dengenin sağlanması adalet sonucunu vermektedir. Üç temel erdemin ifrat ve tefritten uzak olması durumunun adalet olarak nitelendirilmesinde olduğu gibi zarûrat-ı hamsedenilen ve korunması şeriatın amacı olan beş temel değerin (can, din, akıl, mal ve nesil) korunup gerçekleştirilmesi de toplumsal-hukuki adalet sonucunu vermektedir. Bu bakımdan beş temel değer arasında adaletin özellikle sayılmasına gerek duyulmamış, belki de korunması amaçlanan beş temel değerin gerektiği biçimde korunması durumunda adaletin gerçekleşmiş olacağı düşünülmüştür. Kur’an’daki kullanımlardan ve İslam bilginlerinin ona atfettikleri anlam ve getirdikleri yorumlardan hareketle “adalet”in içeriğini belirlemek ve bu içeriğin İslam bilimlerine ve özellikle fıkha nasıl yansıdığını tespit etmek ve bu tespitler üzerinden İslam bilginlerinin adaleti gerek birey gerekse toplum açısından nasıl gözle görülür, elle tutulur ve gerçekleştirilebilir bir şey haline getirdiklerini ortaya koymak bu yazının temel amacını oluşturmaktadır.
Many philosophers, especially philosophers of law, have stated that it is difficult, or even impossible, to define justice regarded as the most fundamental concept of the law. For instance, Hans Kelsen criticizes the definition of justice made by some important philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, and suggests that, unlike relative justice, absolute justice can not be defined.
According to Muslim scholars, justice is essentially definable and feasible. They are in the position of acknowledging justice as something that can be realized. Because their holy book, the Qur'an, commands justice and it is not possible to fulfill this order without knowing what justice is.
The concept of justice has been examined in various disciplines such as kalām, philosophy, morality, and fiqh; and also in political literature in the tradition of Muslim thought. Despite the fact that justice has a more advanced level of emphasis and centralization in the field of fiqh as well as in the fields of philosophy, morality, and politics, it cannot be said that jurists (fuqaha) has created a theory of justice or they have theoretically argued it in the sense known today.
Perhaps there is a role for jurists’ perception about the justice as something that can be known by nature and how it is performed. The reason behind this perception is that the jurists found the provisions and general principles that would help them to organize social relations as ready-to-use data provided to them by the prophet of religion whom they believed. The fact that Allah and His Messenger, whom they call "Shari", is the haqîm (erudite) is sufficient for them to accept their provisions as appropriate and fair.
Nonetheless, it is clear that the jurists are interested in the concept of justice and describe it at various levels. They work on establishment of justice in judicial decisions and solutions even if it is not in the framework of an independent theory.
The answers given by Islamic scholars to the question "What is justice?", in general, can be summarized as the justice is a balance point, a middle point. Muslim scholars have explained justice in terms of two main complementary levels, mainly the former is individual, and the latter is social.
Justice at the individual level is handled and defined in the context of moral virtue. According to this, justice is the keep of the carnal, wrathful, and brutish desires of the human being at a point of balance. The wisdom, chastity, and courage accepted as the three fundamental moral virtues can be achieved by avoiding extremes, and the establishment of this balance results in justice. For example, courage arises at the mid-point between cowardice and aggression. For this reason, Islamic moralists describe justice as the achievement of keeping the three basic virtues away from extremes instead of specifically mentioning it as a fourth virtue.
Just as the protection of the three main virtues from the extremes is described as justice, the protection of the five basic values (life, religion, reason, property, and descendants), called as al al darurat al hamsa and intended for the protection of sharia, result in social-legal justice. In this respect, justice is not particularly required to be counted among the five basic values, and perhaps justice would be realized if these five basic values are protected as needed.
All sharias are aimed at preserving life, religion, reason, property, and descendants. However, the regulations made in the context of achieving this goal could differ between sharias. A typical example is that the punishment for the crime of murder is different in Moses’, Jesus’, and Muhammad's sharias. The naskh phenomenon between different sharias and within the same sharia is closely related to this fact.
The main purpose of this article is (1) to identify the “content” of justice based on Qur’an quotes on it, the meaning that Islamic scholars attributed to it, and the interpretations that they brought to it; (2) to determine how this “content” reflects on Islamic studies (especially on fiqh, i.e., Islamic law); (3) based on these determinations, to expose how Islamic scholars have made justice something concrete and visible for both individuals and society.
The influence of Islamic philosophers’ ideas on the Muslim scholars’ ideas on justice, and the possibility of bringing this effect back to the Greek philosophers is also a matter to be emphasized. However, this issue has not been addressed in this article.
Allah imtihan etmek ve teslimiyetini görmek için sorumluluk yüklediği ve buna mukabil yeryüzünün en değerli varlığı kıldığı insana Kur’an’da çeşitli vesilelerle farklı hitap şekilleriyle seslenmiştir. Bu seslenişlerde “insan” kelimesi öne çıkmaktadır. Dilbilimciler “insan” kelimesinin etimolojik kökenini tespit ederken farklı görüşler ileri sürmüşlerdir. Kelimenin aslına dair ortaya koydukları görüşlerin hepsi dikkat çekici bir şekilde insanı tanımlayan niteliklere işaret etmektedir. Bu çerçevede “insan” kelimesinin; “unutan varlık anlamında” ins/الإنسkökünden, kendisine öğretilen varlık anlamında înâs/الإناسmastarından veya “çok hareket etmek” manasındaki nvs/نوسkökünden türediği söylenmektedir. Ayrıca “cana yakın olmak, uyum sağlamak” anlamındaki üns/الأنسmastarından türediği “yaratılış itibariyle sosyal varlık” olarak tanımlamasının da buradan kaynaklandığını ifade eden değerlendirmeler de bulunmaktadır. “İnsan”kelimesi herhangi bir kayıtla sınırlandırılmadığı genel kullanımlarında bütün bir insan cinsini kapsamaktadır. Kur’an’da ise pek çok yerde farklı nitelikleri ortaya konularak kullanılmıştır. Dolayısıyla herhangi bir ayırım yapmaksızın “Kur'an'da geçtiği bütün yerlerde bütün bir insan cinsi anlamında kullanılmıştır” demek doğru bir yaklaşım değildir. Bunun böyle olmadığını anlamak için klasikten modern döneme kadar telif edilmiş olan tefsirlere kısaca bir göz atmak yeterlidir. Zira görebildiğimiz kadarıyla hiçbir müfessir, kelimenin geçtiği bütün ayetlere her yerde genel insan cinsi manası vermemiştir. Bu çalışmada yirmi üç yıllık nüzul sürecinde farklı bağlamlarda inen ayetlerde yer alan “insan” kelimesinin sınıflandırılmasında, ayetlerin indiği ortamın tarihi bağlamı başta olmak üzere siyak-sibak ilişkisi, dil kuralları ve nüzul sebepleri dikkate alınmıştır. Diğer yandan “insan” kelimelerinden ilk kastedilenin kim olduğunu tespit etmenin ayetin mesajını anlamada ne denli önemli olduğu örneklerle ortaya konulmuş ve söz konusu kelimenin anlamlandırılmasına dönük meallerin yaklaşımları analiz edilmiştir.
Allah has addressed the people to whom he has given responsibility in order to test and see their obedience and, in return for this, made them the most honorable being on earth, on various occasions and in different styles throughout the Quran. It is seen that the word insân, is used in a significant part of these kinds of addresses. Linguists have put forward different opinions when determining the etymological origin of the word insân. All of the ideas put forward by them remarkably point to the qualities that characterize human being. In this context, it is said that the word insânis derived from ins meaning “forgetful entity” or from inâsmeaning “taught entity” or from nvsmeaning “to move a lot”. In addition, there are evaluations indicating that it is derived from the infinitive üns meaning,“becoming friendly or adapting” and stating that the definition of human beings as innate social being is based on this derivation.
The word insânis used by the Qur'an in sixty-five verses, all but one of which are used in definite (marife) form. While four usages of the word in question, refer to Adam, considered as the very first ancestor of humankind, fourty-there passages refer to infidel/polytheist man; and also while fifteen other passages refer to humankind, the remaining there passages refer to believer man. It is stated that some of the verses that mention the phases of man's existence express that human being is created from mud and is derivates, which seem to point to Adam. It seems that other verses, which express that man is created from water, sperm and a drop of water, mean all humanity, namely Adam’s generation. On the other hand, the exegetes particularly emphasize the above two different categories of meaning in their evaluations of the relevant verses. However, none of the meals analysed in this study, with a few exceptions, reflected this distinction in their translations. For this reason, we consider that it would be more correct to point out “first man” or “Adam” while translating the verses in question within the parentheses or at least to state that real intention is the first man in the footnote.
One of the meanings meant by the word insânin the Qur'an is the human being as species. The word in question has been used in fifteen verses in the meaning of human species. The first one of these usages in the Qur'an according to the Mushaforder is, as far as we can determine, the twenty-eighth verse of the fourth chapter (al-Nisâ) and this verse refers to males. In our view, the approach of the meals for the verses other than this verse (al-Nisâ 4:28), in which the word insânis used in the meaning of whole human species, is appropriate. It is true but not complete to translate the word mentioned in verse (al-Nisâ 4:28) saying: "man is weakly created". We think that this shortcoming should be eliminated by adding a statement like “inclination of males to females” in brackets or by making a brief explanation in footnote that they are males who are meant by this sentence.
Looking at verses by which a polytheist/infidel man is meant, it is seen that, generally, negative personality traits such as ungratefulness, arrogance, stinginess and constant dissatisfaction, are foregrounded. And, also, it is pointed out that they have serious belief problems about areas such as Tawheed, Nubuvvah and Meâd. The most remarkable of these is the verse al-Ahzâb 33:71. It is seen that meals translate the word insânin this verse as "all people" without any distinction. However, the context of the verse and linguists’ explanations that one of the meanings of hameleis “to betray”, indicate that this translation is not appropriate. On the other hand, the preferred meaning in these meals requires that all believers, especially the prophets, are described as cruel and ignorant. For these reasons, we hold that the relevant part of the verse should to be translated saying "the disbelievers and the hypocrites did not fulfil the trust (their responsibilities) and betrayed. Indeed, they are very cruel and very ignorant”. It is seen that nearly none of the meals are successful in translating of this verse except Mustafa Öztürk’s meal; just as in most of the verses about this subject.
One of the passages where the word insânis used in a different way is the verses containing messages to the believers. Three verses, consisting of al-`Ankabut 29:8, Luqman 31:14 and al-Ahqaf 46:15, contain messages on how the believer will behave to their idolatry parents in particular and arrangements for all believers to treat their parents well, in general. These above-cited verses draw the boundaries of obedience to the parents by saying that no one can be obeyed when it is a matter of association for Allah. Considering the context of the verses and the reasons of the revelations (Asbâb al-Nuzûl) as well as the evaluations of the commenters, it becomes clear that they are believers who are meant by these verses and the address is directed towards believers. For if one is a polytheist, his parents will not be expected to ask him to attribute a partner to or deny Allah. For the reasons put forward here, we think that the translation of the relevant verses would be more accurate saying “We have enjoined on (a believer) man kindness to parents (even if they are idolaters)”, or at least it would be more accurate to state this explanation in the footnote. However, when we applied to the meals, we have found that the word insânin these three verses are given a meaning goes "all human species”, and that the context of the verses as well as the reasons for revelation are not taken into consideration.
In this study, which is given a broad summary above, while insânwords, mentioned in verses sent down in the twenty-three-year period, are classified, particularly the historical conditions of the environment to which the verses were descended, and the context, the language rules and the reasons of revalation were taken into consideration. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated with examples how important it is to determine who is firstly meant by insânwords in order to grasp the messages of a verse and the approach of the meals to the meaning of words in question was analysed.
Bu çalışma, Doğu ve Batı Medeniyetinin insan tasavvurlarından yola çıkarak bir değerlendirme yapmayı amaçlamaktadır. Batı medeniyetinin kökenleri Antik Yunan’a dayandığı için, Yunan mitolojisinin insanın yaratılışı ile ilgili verdiği bilgiler, Prometheus efsanesi bağlamında ele alınmıştır. Prometheus, yaygın olarak bilinen, günümüzde sanattan spora pek çok alanda canlılığını gösteren bir mittir; ilk insanın yaratılışında, çeşitli yetenekler verilmesinde ve insanoğlunun Olympos’un tanrılarına başkaldırısına önderlik eden mitolojik karakterdir. Doğu’nun insan tasavvuru bağlamında ise, Kur’an’ın ilk insana dair vermiş olduğu ayetler değerlendirilmiştir. Hz. Âdem’in yaratılışı ile ilgili bilgilerden hareketle, insana yüklenen kul ve halife kavramları ele alınmıştır. Kul ve halife, insanoğlunun yeryüzündeki varlığını anlamlandıran ve ona sorumluluk yükleyen iki önemli kavramdır. Dolayısıyla çalışma, Prometheus efsanesindeki veriler ve kul-halife bağlamındaki bilgilerle, her iki medeniyetin insanın dünyadaki varlığını anlamlandırma sürecinden başlayarak ilerlemiştir. İlk insanla ilgili bilgiler, kadın konusunda özel olarak durmayı gerektirdiği için, Pandora ve Hz. Havva hakkında değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Pandora, mitolojide ilk kadın olarak bilinmektedir; yaratılış sebebi, o zamana kadar sadece erkekten oluşan insanoğluna yaptıkları hatalara karşı verilen ceza olmasıdır. Bütün kötülüklerin yeryüzüne Pandora sebebiyle yayıldığına inanılır. Hz. Havva şahsında çizilen kadın algısı ise, mitolojideki anlatıdan tamamen uzaktır. Cennetten düşüşe sebep olan hadisede, kadın cinsine özel olarak hiçbir suçun isnad edilemeyeceği, Kur’an metninden açıkça anlaşılmaktadır. Yapılan hata ve mukabilindeki ceza, kadın-erkek eşit olarak verilmiştir. İlk kadın hakkındaki veriler, toplumların kadın imajı hakkında çarpıcı verilere sahiptir. Medeniyetler arası çatışma teorilerine girmeden yürütülen bu çalışma, her iki medeniyetinin insan tasavvurlarından kaynaklanan farklılıklara değinmiştir. Sonuçta Batı’nın insana yüklediği misyon Prometheusçu bir tavırken, Doğu’nun insanı her şeyden önce kul ve halifedir.
The aim of this study is to make an assessment of human behaviors, based on the information about the first human on Eastern and Western civilizations. This study, which is carried out without entering into the theories of conflict between civilizations, basically emphasizes on the difference of the human conceptions of both civilizations. Since Western civilization originated in ancient Greece, Western type human prototype was discussed in terms of the information’s given in Greek mythology. Prometheus myth was discussed in the context of mainly human but with handling side variants of God and women. As a human prototype of Eastern civilization, information’s provided by Islam/Qur'an in the creation of human have been evaluated. The information given by both civilizations to human beings is seen to shape our present world in terms of God, human, universe, women, science, power etc.
As Prometheus legend was evaluated in terms of the Western human prototype, firstly a brief myth/mythology description was made in this study. It is difficult to make a common definition about the myth that everybody will accept; but it is possible to say that mythology shapes the present world. Prometheus is a legend that continues its vitality in various fields from literature to sports and is interpreted in different forms. Prometheus is a titan, who take side of Zeus in war against Zeus and immortality was given to him because of this. This titan is the one who created the first human, shaped him like God, equipped him with various qualities and have taken the part of human always against cruel God. This was same also in the case of sacrifice, which should be shared fairly among the Gods and human. Prometheus deceived Zeus with his cunning and made sure that the nice parts of the meat were kept in the human. Zeus, who is angry about this event, has taken fire from people. Prometheus opposed this order of Zeus and brought fire to human. The worth of this event was punishment of Prometheus with chain and eaten of his liver every day by an eagle, and human was punished with Pandora. Pandora is the first woman who is ornamented by Goddess and a crate/box was given to her as a wedding gift. With the loss of her curiosity Pandora opened the box that she shouldn’t and all the evils spread to the earth. Human, who had not met with disaster until that time, has faced all evil with Pandora. This myth implies the connection between God and human, the steal of fire/knowledge, the spread of all the disasters on the earth with a woman's hand, and reveals the human concept of the West. Revolt/rebellion against the Church/God, lifting the creative idea, seeing the means of dominion of knowledge and counting all the ways for it, loading the similarity/paradox of sin between Prometheus and Jesus, the value of the woman over the centuries and the striking resemblance of the image of Pandora-Eve…
The information given by the Qur'an on the creation of human has been evaluated as the human imagination of the East. As expressed in various patterns of Qur’an, human is created from soil. The status of the human, who comes to the stage of existence with the soul blowing, was exalted by teaching Adam all names by God. Adam and Eve has done a crime that causes them to be removed from heaven; but this error has not turned into an accusative one in the Qur'an; common expression patterns are used. In addition, the expression of the human dignity because of this error was not used to mold. The two most important concepts that stand out in the human conception of the East are the servantand the khalifa. These two words, as evidenced by the connotations of the name, are totally religious-oriented, and the human being is the most important feature in the East. The servantand the khalifaexpresses a lot in a world which is full of Prometheus and trying to break off ties with religion. These words not only determine the position of man in the universe, but also with the message they gave it tells us that human must never forget that there is a Creator and he/she has sense of responsibility for his actions. Before all things, human is a creature that is created by Allah. While he knows nothing and his raw materials are so simple (soil/mud/slime/semen etc.), he became extraordinary with the given variety of limbs/talents, he was equipped with the authority and the universe has been subservient to him. However, the essential to these people is not to forget the fact that he doesn’t own them, they are just the blessing of the Supreme Creator/Allah. Therefore, he must not rely on the special features that are found in him and heavenly self-mutuality to unnecessary pride as God.
In light of this information’s, it is possible to see how the worldview of these two civilizations is separated from each other. While the West is in an anthropocentric understanding, the East has a theocentric understanding and this difference is most determinant in the issues of God, human, women, universe, morality, power etc. Of course, there will be differences between a conscious awareness of ontological difference and a conscious awareness of an understanding of God as a competitor of people. There is a profound gap between the expectation of a savior who rescued man from eternal slavery with an understanding rebellion to God’s and to undertake the responsibility of one's actions and give him freedom to provide space for action on earth. As a matter of fact, the reflections of the understanding of religion, which describes man and woman as a whole, is quite different with understanding of the man's suffered and punished with the woman's hand. With a God imagination that does not give people fire/knowledge and a Creator who teaches names to Adam, represents the opposite polarities, and the day-to-day repercussions are quite different when this is considered in the context of science ethics. As a result, these differences, in fact, emerged from the meanings of the sacred burden. While the West become human with violating the sacred, the East became human with the grace of God. While the human prototype of the West is a man who can rival with the Gods, who can fight, deceive, and ignore them, the human prototype of East are in aware of its servitudeand it’s the khalifa, the honor of all creatures. Therefore, while the West is struggling with all kinds of metaphysical values, the East is acting with the responsibilities given to him. After all, the mission of both is different; one of Prometheus, the other of the Khalifa…
İslâm düşüncesinde varlık imkânla ilişkisi bakımından üç biçimde değerlendirilmiştir. İlki, zâtında imkân bulundurmayan varlık olup bu, Tanrı'dır. İkincisi, zâtında imkânı bilkuvve olan ve zorunlu olmayan varlıktır. Bu varlık var olmak zorunda değildir. Var olmaya da yok olmaya da eşit mesafededir. Bu iki yaklaşım hem İslâm felsefesi hem de kelâmda ittifakla kabul edilmiştir. Üçüncü yaklaşımda ise imkân, varlıktan önce olmayıp, aksine zâtta imkânı bilfiil varlığıyla birlikte bulunur ve başkasıyla zorunlu şeklinde ifade edilir. İslâm filozofları ay üstü âlem, akıllar ve diğer ezeli yaratıkları bu şekilde başkasıyla zorunlu kategorisinde değerlendirir. Bilfiil var olan varlığı bir şekilde zorunlulukla ilişkilendiren filozoflar karşısında kelâmcılar ise imkân vasfının zorunluluk ile bir arada kullanılmaması gerektiğini ileri sürerler. Bu çalışmada İslâm felsefesi ve kelâmda zorunluluğun mümkün varlıkla ilişkilendirilmesi bakımından ortaya çıkan farklı yorum ve anlayışların bu disiplinlerin varlık tasnifi, âlem tasavvuru, âlemin yaratılması ve ezelîliği, Tanrı-âlem ilişkisi gibi konularında ne gibi yansımaları olduğu ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu amaçla öncelikle imkân kavramının arka planı genel hatlarıyla açıklandıktan sonra İslâm filozoflarının ortaya koyduğu biçimde zorunlulukla ilişkilendirilen mümkün varlık tasavvuru incelenmiştir. Daha sonra müteahhir dönem kelâmcıların bu tasavvura yönelik itirazları ilk olarak varlık tasnifi ikinci olarak ise metafizik sonuçları açısından iki başlık altında ele alınmıştır.
In Islamic thought, being (wujūd) was evaluated in three ways in relation to the possibility (imkân). The first is God, who has no possibilities in his essence (zât). The second is the entity, possibility of which is latent in his essence and not necessary. This entity does not have to exist. It is equally distant to existence or non-existence. These two approaches were accepted both in Islamic philosophy and Kalâm with the alliance. In the third approach, the possibility is not before the being, but on the contrary, it exists in the essence together with its actual possibility and it is expressed as the entity which is possible in itself but necessary through another. Islamic philosophers consider celestial beings, minds and other eternal creatures in this category of necessary through another. In contrast to the philosophers who associate an actual being with the necessity in a certain way, the theologians argue that the quality of possibility should not be used together with necessity (wujûb). In this study, we have searched for the term of possible in itself but necessary through another being in the way that the philosophers put forward and the objections of the theologians to it. From this point, we aim to reveal the effects of the different approaches of the two disciplines about the possible being on their conception of the world.
In particular, two great Muslim philosophers, Farabi (d. 379/950) and Ibn Sina (d. 428/1037), gave great importance to the necessary-possible classification while forming their understanding of existence. For example, according to Farabi, the possible being is the latter being that are missing regarding the existence and it is between existence and non-existence. That’s why, Farabi expresses that there is no given existence to the possibility in its own nature. However, the first reason has made both the things that are likely and unlikely to exist possible. In this way, Farabi expressed the possible being that became actual, with the word absolute.
Ibn Sina, makes the concept of possibility, metaphysical dimension of which had not become clear yet in his predecessor Farabi, one of the most central concepts of metaphysical thinking. According to him, possibility means the possible being in terms nature of the world. From this point of view, he refers to a class of independent being. However, he uses the term possible in itself (wājib al-wujūd bi-dhātihi) but necessary through another (wājib al-wujūd bi ghayrihi) to denote that there is a reason for every being which is actual. The reason for this is defined as the thing that brings the possibility into the body. That means; something that is possible to exist becomes necessary as there is a cause for it to exist. In other words, the cause of possible being is also the reason for its being described as necessary at the same time. In this context, Ibn Sina uses the term: "All possible to exist, does not exist unless it is necessary when compared to its cause." For Ibn Sina, who embraced the understanding of emanation (sudur), this necessity continues until the First Reason. Only the First Reason is a necessary being with itself, not because of the others but because it has no cause. The world is described as the being which is possible in itself but necessary through another though. This thought of Ibn Sina has two consequences. The first is that the world is eternal. He bases this with the idea that the cause and effect cannot be separated from each other. The second result is that the creation of the world was compulsory. He relates this with the God's goodness, generosity and knowledge.
On the other hand, in the science of Kâlam, the concepts of possible, necessary and impossible from the perspective of existence classification started to be given intensively from Ghazali. We can say that it has two reasons why the theologians included these concepts. First of all, it is to reveal the mistakes of philosophers through Ibn Sina, who deals specifically with these concepts in detail. Second, it is to benefit from these concepts to improve their understanding of being. As philosophers suggest, we can state that the theologians objected to the understanding of possible being in two respects. Their initial objections are in terms of its position in the classification of entity. The second is in terms of metaphysical results. According to this, it is contradictory above all to define a being as both possible and necessary. The contradiction here is a logical contradiction. On the other side, Shahristani sees as a contradictory both Ibn Sina’s not accepting the partnership of the Necessary Being in case of necessity, but also his dividing the Necessary Being into two as necessary in its essence and necessary through another. In this respect, the Shahristani indicates that the world must directly be attributed to the Necessary Being with its essence. The reason is that he does not accept the idea of the hierarchy of being that emerged with the understanding of emanation (sudur) which is accepted by Ibn Sina and other philosophers and makes one another compulsory. According to him, such acceptance will come to mean missing the Divine Will.
The conception of the world that emerges when adopted in the form of possible Kalâm is as follows: The world, whose existence or nonexistence is permissible, existed as a means of a creator if it exists. It would not need a creator (mujîd) if it was not created. The creator gave a preference. Instead of the nonexistence of the world, he chose its presence. This direction of choice and preference requires God with regard to its essence to have existed earlier than the world. In this respect, the existence of what is possible in the Kalâm sense cannot be in any way the same as Wājib al-Wujūd in terms of time, virtue and rank. The previousness, posteriority, and coexistence can also be given to two things that have a relationship between. There is no such relation between Allah and the world. As a result, two different approaches emerging in relation to the possible being are one of the main reasons for the discrepancy between the theologians and the philosophers of Islam.
In this respect, on the base of the Islamic philosophy and Kalam approaches differing in terms of being classification, the creation of the world, its eternality and God's relationship with the World; the possible being understanding of both disciplines has a discriminating and a significant place.
Yoğun bir çabanın ardından somut bir ürüne dönüşen emeğimizin akademik camiaya katkı sağlayacağını ümit ediyoruz.