İbn Ebî Hâtim er-Râzî (ö.327/938) hicrî dördüncü asrın önemli münekkidlerinden biridir. Onun el-Cerh ve’t-ta’dil isimli kitabı, zamanımıza kadar ulaşmış en geniş rical eserleri arasındadır. Eser, İbn Ebî Hâtim dönemine kadar yaşamış ravilerin tenkidine ilaveten, daha önceki hadis imamlarından nakledilen ravilere ilişkin bilgilerin eleştirisini de ihtiva etmektedir.
el-Cerh ve’t-ta’dîl’de, bazı râvîler hakkında hata ettiği gerekçesiyle tenkid edilen hadis âlimlerinden biri İmam Buhârî’dir (ö.256/870). İbn Ebî Hâtim, Buhârî’nin et-Târîhu’l-kebîr’de ravilerle ilgili zikrettiği bilgiler hakkındaki tenkidlerini Beyânu hatai Muhammed b. İsmâîl el-Buhârî fî Târîhihi isimli müstakil bir kitapta toplamıştır. Bu kitabın muhtevası makale hacmini aşacağı için incelememizin dışında tutulmuştur. İncelememiz, el-Cerh ve’t-ta’dîl’deki bazı Buhârî tenkidleriyle sınırlıdır.
İbn Ebî Hâtim’in Buhârî’ye yönelik tenkidlerinin önemli bir kısmı, tefrik hakkındadır. Tefrîk, bir kişinin isim, künye veya lakabı hatalı ve yanlış olarak farklı şekillerde telaffuz edildiği için, bu farklı lafızların birden fazla kişiye işaret ettiğini zannetmektir. Tefrîk sonucunda, olmayan şahıslar ihdas edilmekte, bu da rivayetlerin senedinde inkıta’a sebep olmaktadır.
Makalede, İbn Ebî Hâtim’in el-Cerh ve’t-ta’dîl’de Buhârî’ye tefrik bağlamında yönelttiği bazı tenkidler karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmektedir. Öncelikle İbn Ebî Hâtim’in Buhârî’ye yönelik tenkidleri hakkında yapılan yorumlar nakledilmiş; daha sonra, İbn Ebî Hâtim’in bazı raviler bağlamında Buhârî’ye ilişkin söz konusu tenkidleri, her iki âlimin adı geçen kitaplarından karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiştir.
The Critiques of Ibn Abi Hatim Directed to al-Bukhari’s al-Târîkh al-Kabîr in the Context of Tafrik
Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi (d. 327/938) is one of the most important criticals in the third period of Hijri.The book al-Jarh wa’t-ta’dîl written by him, is among the largest works of narrators that reached our time. The aforementioned book contains important informations concerning critiques of hadith narrators. In addition to the critique of narrators who lived until the time of Ibn Abi Hatim, the book contains a ciritique of information concerning narrators transmitted by previous hadith and rijal scholars. The aforementioned book gives important informations about narrators in the first three centuries.
In al-Jarh wa’t-ta'dîl, Imam Bukhari (d. 256/870) is one of the hadith and rijal scholars who is criticized because of making mistakes about some narrators. Imam Bukhari, besides being author of Sahih al-Bukhari is from the main sources of hadith, as clearly indicated in the books of at-Târîkh al-kabir, at-Târîkh al-awsat and at-Târîkh al-saghir, is one of the great rijal scholars of the third century. Ibn Abi Hâtim did not mention Buhârî's name especially among the critical imams whom he mentioned their names in the context of evaluation of narrators in al-Jarh wa’t-ta’dil, includin his father Abu Hatim al-Razi (d.277 / 890) and Abu Zür'a al-Razi (d.264/848). Although the name of Bukhari is not mentioned among the imams by Ibn Abi Hatim, al-Jarh wa’t-ta'dîl are alleged to be based on at-Târîkh al-kabir.
Even if Ibn Ebi Hatim brought together critiques of informations mentioned by Buhârî about narrators in at-Târîkh al-kabîr in a separate book, Beyânu hatai Muhammed b. İsmâîl el-Buhhârî fî Târîkhih, it is excluded from our review because the content of the book in question would exceed the article coverage. Our research is limited to the critiques directed to Bukhari in the book al-Jarh wa't-ta'dîl. In the both books Beyânu hatai Muhammad b. Ismâl al-Bukhari fi Tarikhih and al-Jarh wa't-ta'dîl, Ibn Abi Hatim bases his critiques about the information concerning narrators given by Bukhari, on his father Abu Hatim er-Razi and Abu Zur'a er-Razi. This means that a significant part of the criticisms of Ibn Abi Hatim consists of informations based on narratives.
A significant portion of Ibn Abi Hatim`s criticiques is composed narrative-based informations. A quite a bit of critiques directed in al-Jarh wa’t-ta’dîl to Buhârî by Abu Hatim, basing on er-Razi and Abu Zür'a er-Razi, is consisted of critiques in the context of tafrik that is one of the subdisciplines of Hadith. For being pronounced a person's name, tag or nickname in correct and different ways, tafrik is to suppose that these different words about the person's name, tag and nickname refer to more than one person. In other words, due to pronunciation of name, tag or nickname of a person in error or mistake in different forms, tafrik is to assume that more than one person is present. As a result, incorrectly and wrongly, nonexistent persons are being created; because of saying the names that do not indicate a real personality, it causes the brokenness in chains of hadith transmitters.
In our article, in al-Jarh wa’t-ta'dîl some of the critiques directed in the context of tafrik by Ibn Abi Hâtim to Imam Buhârî are examined comparatively. According to the critiques of Ibn Abi Hatim, Bukhari in his book Târîkh al-kabir by repeatedly recording the names of some transmitters incorrectly, made mistakes in tafrik type, such as making up different persons from a single name. On the basis of his father Abu Hatim al-Razi and Abu Zur'a al-Razi, Ibn Abi Hatim had usually expressed this kind of criticism, through the sentence جعل البخاري هذا الاسم الواحد اسمين (Bukhari made this single name two names).
In our article, firstly, a brief information was given on al-Jarh wa’t-ta'dîl and Târîkh al-kabir and then Ibn Abi Hâtim`s approach concerning informations about transmitters given by Imam Buhârî are examined in general way. According to this research, Ibn Abi Hatim mentioned the hadith leaders, he qualified them as "expert", "leader in religion", "reliable" and considered their views in his book Taqdimat al-Ma'rifah which is preface of al-Jarh wa't-ta'dîl, in four layers because they are peers. The name of Imam Bukhari, who is a peer with third generation of hadith leaders, was not take part in this stratification. The cause Buhârî not being in the stratification among hadith leaders, is that he claimed that the pronunciation of the Qur'an is a creation. Despite this, Al-Jarh wa’t-ta'dîl are alleged to be based on al-Târîkh al-kabîr. These allegations were evaluated taking into consideration the related narrations.
The evaluations concerning the critiques of Ibn Abi Hatim to Buhari were examined; in this context, even if Bukhari's mistakes are present, It is emphasized that they may be a problem for the first uncorrected copies of al-Tarîkh al-kabîr that were not yet reviewed by Bukhârî. As well as, moving from differences of al-Tarîkh al-kabir's manuscripts, it is put in words that Ibn Abi Hatim is accurate in part of the critics which he based on his father Abu Hatim ar-Razi and Abu Zur'a ar-Razi and that he is not accurate in its other part.
In the context of main goal of our research, Ibn Abi Hatim's critiques in al-Jarh wa’t-ta'dil about Bukhari's mistakes related to tafrîk were examined comparatively on the basis of the books of both hadith scholars. Within this comparative research, first of all, Ibn Abi Hatim’s critiques directed towards Bukhârî about transmitters was determined from al-Jarh wa't-ta'dîl; later, Whether or not he behaved correctly in these criticisms was checked on the basis of at-Târîkh al-kabîr. In this comparison, it is absolutely pointed out whether or not Ibn Abi Hatim is right in his critics and whether or not Bukhari makes an error. In the research, it was not enough to compare only these two books, al-Jarh wa’t-ta'dîl and al-Târîkh al-kabîr; the necessary controls were also made on Bukhârî's Sahih. Namely, Ibn Abi Hatim claimed in his book al-Jarh wa't-ta'dîl that Bukhârî recorded any transmitter in different shapes in al-Târîkh; his assertion has been checked with respectal-Tarikh itself. Not satisfied with that, it is studied whether or not Bukhari recorded any transmitter mistakenly in his book Sahih as Ibn Abi Hatim claimed and thus whether or not Sahih contained the transmitter’s narrative.
Keywords: Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Bukhari, al-Jarh wa’t-ta'dîl, al-Tārīkh al-kabîr, Tafrik
Gelişen teknolojik imkanlarla birlikte din öğretimi sürecinde yararlanılacak materyallerin sayısı da artmıştır. Söz konusu materyallerden birisi de filmlerdir. Filmler dersleri daha eğlenceli ve öğretici hale getirebilir. Öğrencilere zengin öğrenme yaşantısı sunabilir. Bunun için öğretmenlerin bu materyalden etkili bir şekilde yararlanmaları din öğretiminde yaşanan ilgisizlik, isteksizlik, bıkkınlık gibi sorunların azalmasında katkı sağlayabilir.
Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, Din dersi öğretmenlerinin bir öğretim materyali olarak film/videoları kullanma durumlarını ortaya koymaktır. Araştırma, var olan durumu betimleyen tarama modelinde bir çalışmadır. Kayseri örnekleminde yapılan bu araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre; araştırmaya katılan Din dersi öğretmenlerinin yarısı derslerinde filmlerden yararlanmaktadır. Din dersi öğretmenlerinin en çok kullandıklarını söyledikleri film türü “kısa filmler/videolar”dır. Araştırmaya katılan öğretmenlerin filmlerden en çok yararlandıkları ders türü “Din Kültürü ve Ahlak Bilgisi”dir. En az film kullanılan öğretim alanı İmam Hatip Lisesi Meslek dersleri olmuştur. Dolayısıyla, derslerinde film kullanan öğretmenler daha çok ortaokul DKAB öğretmenleridir. Bayan öğretmenler erkeklere nazaran bu materyalden daha çok yararlanmaktadır. Öğretmenler bu materyali daha çok “işlenen konuyu zenginleştirmek, geliştirmek” için kullanmaktadırlar. Söz konusu öğretmenler filmleri daha çok meslektaşlarından ve internet sitelerinden temin etmektedirler. Araştırmaya katılan öğretmenler din öğretiminde film seçerken, en çok seçilen filmin “konuya uygunluğuna” dikkat ettiklerini söylemişlerdir. Araştırmaya katılan öğretmenlerin film kullanma konusunda en çok yaşadıkları sorun, bazı okullardaki internet ve bilgisayar yetersizliğidir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Din dersi öğretmenleri, din öğretimi, filmler
The Usage of Films as a Teaching Material by Religious Education Teachers
Introduction and Purpose of the Study
With the development of technological possibilities, the number of teaching materials that can be used in religious education has increased. One of these materials is films/videos. Films/videos can make lessons more fun and educational, and it can offers to students a rich learning experience. For this reason, effective use of this material by the religious teachers can contribute to the reduction of problems such as indifference, reluctance and boredom in religious education. The main purpose of this research was to assess use of films/videos as teaching materials by the Religious Education teachers. In this context, some questions asked are;
1-How much did they use the films in the process of Religious instruction?
2-Where did they get them?
3-What kind of films did they use most?
4-What are they paying attention to when choosing them?
5-How they did they benefit during the lessons?
6-What kind of problems they have experienced in this process? And similar questions are asked and answered
The research is a survey model that describes the current situation. In the study datas were gathered by questionnaire on 108 Religious Education Teachers in Kayseri province. 57 %of the participants are men and 40 %are women. 21 IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software program was used to test hypotheses generated for the purposes of research. Quantitative analyses methods (means, percentages), were used in analyzing the data.
Results and Discussion
According to this research results were made in Kayseri sample, half of the participant teachers use films their lessons. Most used film type is short films/videos. The type of lesson that most used films is "Religion Culture and Moral Knowledge". The least used course is İmam Hatip High School Teachers who use movies in their lessons are mostly secondary school teachers. Female teachers use this material more often than male teachers. Teachers use this material to further "enrich and improve the subject matter". Teachers provide films mostly from colleagues and internet sites. When the teachers choosing films in religious instruction, they were paying attention to the content compliance. The problem that most of the teachers who participated in the research is internet and computer inadequacy in some schools.
Some of the results obtained in the research are; a little more than half of the teachers of Religious Education who participated this research told that they use films in their lessons. According to this data and researches done in the past years. Religious Education Teachers’ usages of films have increased to a certain extent. Religious Education teachers say that they use videos and short films mostly. They are followed by cartoons. Religious Education teachers said that the least useful types of films are clips, documentaries and movies. It is though that the increase of internet opportunities and the ease of finding short videos and films are effective. The type of lesson that teachers who participate the research most benefit from films are ‘Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge’, Life Of Prophet Muhammed and Quran followed it. The least film is used occupational lessons in Imam Hatip High School. Teachers use this material to encourage and develop the topics. Monitoring the unit at the end of the lesson, summarize the subject and purchase the new knowledge aims follow them. However some of the teachers use them not to leave lessons empty. Some teachers don’t know functions of films and they misuse them in their lessons. It is thought that teachers who say, that they use films in their lessons, provide films from their colleagues and internet sites. Very few teacher make or edit a film. It is concluded that Religion and Moral Knowledge Teachers are more sensitive about sharing films and materials than Imam Hatip High School teachers. Teachers who participated this research say that they pay attention to context compliance most. To be suitable for students’ features and grade follow them. To be spectacular, negative implicit messages, duration, content, voice and image quality follow it. A little number of teachers say that they choose films according to the teaching aims and functions.
While using films at lessons some of the teachers express that they sometimes pause the films and ask questions in some parts. The others ask students to emphasize with them, some of them want students to take notes, make comments and evaluate films. So it is thought that the teachers being talked about are more conscious about the film watching process.
The problem that most of the teachers who participated the research faced with is inadequacy of internet and computer in some schools. Some of the teachers have said that they have not benefitted from these kind of materials because of the inadequacy of the class hours, the fact that it is enough to tell the subjects unimportance of using films during lessons.
These suggestions can be expressed in the light of these results. In-service training can be done by the teachers in the subjects place, functions and how to choose the films in the field of religious education. The issue can be focused especially on teachers Imam Hatip High School lessons. It is possible to increase the number of sharing sites where films related to the field of Religious Education especially Imam Hatip High School lessons are collected.
The Ministry Of National Education, The General Directorate Of Religious Education can work on this subject. Information banks and exchange banks can be created in virtual environment where the institutions, religious culture and moral knowledge and elective courses, film samples for Imam Hatip High School lessons take place and principles and techniques about how to be watched while they are selected and used.
Further research can be done in this subject.
Keywords: Religious Teachers, Religious Education, Films/Videos
Din ile bilim arasında ki iletişim ve etkileşim insanlık tarihi kadar eskidir. Bu iletişim ve etkileşim kimi zaman uzlaşma ve diyalog tarzında kimi zaman ise çatışma ve entegrasyon şeklinde olmuştur. Tarihsel süreçte dinin bilimi, bilimin de dini etkilediği aşamalar vardır. Rönesans hareketi sonrası Avrupa da ki antik dünyanın bilimsel klasiklerine ilginin yeniden artınca, teoloji ve doğa bilimlerinde yeniden bir uyanış görmekteyiz. Bilimsel gelişme alanlarından biri de şüphesiz astronomidir. Aristoteles’in Gökyüzü Üzerine ve Batlamyus’un Almagest’i ile tanışan kilise, Avrupa’daki dini reformlar ve coğrafi keşifler gibi açılımlara rağmen kilise babalarının da etkisiyle Aristoteles’in Gökyüzü Üzerine adlı eserinde ortaya koyduğu ve Batlamyus’un Almagest’de geliştirdiği yer merkezli evren teorisini savundu ve bunu dini bir dogma haline dönüştürdü. İşte böyle bir ortamda Kopernik güneş merkezli yeni bir model ileri sürerek hem klasik astronomik modelleri hem de kendisini bu model üzerine inşa eden kiliseyi hedef almaktaydı. Bu yeni model doğru çıkarsa hem Kutsal Kitap yanlışlanacak hem de dinî yanılmış olacaktı. Dolayısıyla kadim dinî miras köklü bir eleştiri arefesindedir. Bu sebeple Kopernik’in güneş merkezli evren modeli kilise ile bilimin en önemli çatışma alanlarından biridir. Bu çalışmamızda söz konusu konu ele alınmaktadır.
On the Confliction Between Religion and Science: A Reading Centered on Copernicus
Communication and interaction between religion and science is as old as the human history. This communication and interaction has occurred at times in the form of settlement and dialog and at other times in the form of clash and integration. Over the course of the history, there were times when religion affected science and vice versa. After the Renaissance, when the interest in scientific classics of the ancient world re-emerged in Europe, a rebirth was experienced in theology, thought and natural sciences. One of the scientific areas that saw development was, obviously, astronomy. Astronomy was not a field of science that the church was ignorant of. As an intellectual activity, astronomy was taught in the church and monastery. Astronomy education in churches and monasteries was based solely on repetition. The most original works done were translations of astronomy books from Arabic, which were then presented as new theories. However, there was still scarce information about planetary astronomy. Maybe the most original additions to astronomy were theological interpretations about it. The church direly needed astronomy especially in calendar calculations. The church became acquainted with Aristotle’s On the Heavens and Ptolemy’s Almagest. In spite of developments in Europe such as religious reforms and geographical explorations, the church, under the influence of leaders of the church, defended the geocentric universe theory revealed in Aristotle’s work titled On the Heavens and developed in Ptolemy’s Almagest and turned this into a religious dogma.
Interest in astronomy and noteworthy astronomical studies, on the other hand, started in Europe with translations from Arabic into Latin after the 15th century. We see that in this new intellectual environment emerging after the Renaissance, communication and interaction between religion and science took on a completely different dimension and transcended to a different level. Having an old history, the church appeared to lose its rightfulness in many areas and especially its veracity in natural sciences, although it was still an undisputed power in all domains. In this context, Copernicus, who was a religious functionary at the same time, put forward a new model of the universe that was an alternative to Ptolemy’s astronomy, which was turned by the Church into a dogma. This model, expressed as a heliocentric model, was revolutionary. It not only criticized classical astronomical models, but also aimed at the Church, which based itself of the Ptolemaic model. If the universe was geocentric, either God would be mistaken – in which case Christianity and the Church would be deemed completely void – or the new astronomical models were mistaken. Since it was impossible for God to be mistaken, the new astronomical models were false. However, according to new calculations, the new model was more reasonable and acceptable. Nevertheless, if this new model turned out to be accurate, both the Holy Scripture would be falsified and the church would have made a mistake. Therefore, the ancient religious heritage is under impending radical criticism.
Even though Copernicus dedicated his work to the pope, especially Luther and Calvin raised harsh objections to Copernicus on theological grounds. However, Copernicus was targeted not only by religious functionaries, but also by certain scientists. Nonetheless, such harsh criticism was not raised from the scientific community.
Undoubtedly, the main reason for the clash between the Church and new scientific developments stemmed from literal readings of the Holy Scripture. Adopting a rigid literal approach by equating textual interpretation with the text itself, Luther and Calvin naturally brought science and religion against each other. Ironically, this new theory was put forward by Copernicus, who was a religious functionary himself. As claimed by some researchers, if such a theory had been propounded at a time when Church leaders such as Thomas Aquinas, who was influenced by Averroes, were in power, the religious texts would have been interpreted in line with scientific development and such a clash would have been avoided. However, we observe that the Church dogmatized previous interpretations instead of generating new ones. This attitude of the Church later caused deepening and radical breaking of the fault lines between different disciplines of religion (Christianity) and science. If, in the relevant period, the Church could have eluded dogmatism and science could have eluded ideologism, then the process would have unfolded more healthily. Although the actors have changed, it appears that in modern age, the nature of the problem between religion and science continues over the same erroneous notion.
Keywords: Confliction of Religion and Science, Copernicus, astronomy, geocentric universe, heliosentrik universe
Ebu’l-Hasen İbn Tabâtabâ edebî tenkit alanında dikkat çeken isimlerden biridir. Zira klasik Arap şiirine yönelik yapıcı eleştirileri, farklı meselelerdeki yenilikçi yaklaşımları ve aynı zamanda geleneğe olan saygısı onu önemli bir isim haline getirmektedir. Günümüze de ulaşan ‘İyâru’ş-şi‘r adlı eserinde, edebî tenkit alanındaki farklı meselelere dair görüşlerini görmek mümkündür. Bu meselelerden her biri müstakil bir çalışmayı gerekli kılmaktadır. İbn Tabâtabâ’nın edebî tenkitçiliğini farklı yönleriyle görebilme amacı taşıyan bu çalışma, şiirin mahiyeti ve türleri konuları ile sınırlandırılmıştır. Bu sınırlandırma yapılırken, tenkitçiliğinin yanı sıra bir şair olması da göz önünde bulundurulmuş ve şiir mefhumuyla ilgili fikirlerinin ayrıca önemli olduğu düşünülmüştür. Bu bağlamda öncelikle şiirin tarifi ve ön şartlarıyla ilgili olarak ortaya koyduğu düşünceler farklı edebiyatçıların görüşleri de zikredilerek değerlendirilmiştir. Ardından da lafız ve anlam ögelerini merkeze alınarak yapmış olduğu şiir tasnifi incelenmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: İbn Tabâtabâ, Edebî Tenkit, Şiir, Lafız, Anlam
The Nature and Types of Poetry According to Ibn Tabātabā
Ibn Tabātabā, who was born in Isfahan and also mentioned that he was from Hasan's lineage, does not have any information about the year of birth in the sources. His full name is Abu'l-Hasan Muhammad b. Ahmed b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim Tabātabā al-Hasanī al-Alewī. According to Yāqut al-Hamawī, he completed his scholarship and died in 322/934 in Isfahān, a place special to many poets and literati like himself.
Ibn Tabātabā lives in a very vivid period in literary terms. In this period, many works were written and innovation movements in the field of literature have gained speed. Ibn Tabātabā is also a literary contributor to this field with his works. There are eight works mentioned in the sources. However, 'Iyaru'ş-shi'r is his most valuable work. This is the only work that can reach our time. Despite being a small work, Iyār al-Shi'r, a very important work on the theory of classical Arab poetry, strives to reveal the poetic sentiment and its criteria in its own style. This work is not only a practical criticism book based on a comparative principle but also a theoretical literary criticism aiming at determining the method, the bases and the values of poetry art.
'Iyâr al-Shi'r has different features than many literary criticisms in terms of methods and subjects. At this point, one of the most important characteristics is that it divides different subjects into sections and puts them together with their witnesses. As in some works written before him, he did not focus on matters such as poetry and lahn. The main reason for the writing of 'İyâru'ş-şi'r is to reveal the art of poetry according to literary criteria. In this context, Ibn Tabātabā aims to differentiate poetry into good and bad by combining the views of different literatians with his own experiences and know-how. With the advantage of being a poet, he presented the difficulties that can be encountered in writing poetry and presented suggestions for solving them.
Ibn Tabātabā is a poet and critic in the history of Arabic literature, known for his ability to memorize and his intelligence. Through his constructive criticism of classical Arabic poetry and the theory of poetry he successfully constructed according to his experience, he has influenced many important literary figures. One of the characteristics that make him different from many critics living at the same time with him is that he can look at poetry as a living human being, stripping away from solid and superficial patterns at the point of criticism of poetry. In this context it should be mentioned that Ibn Tabātabā's literary criticism study, which is considered to be the most precious work, is not an application book based on certain molds and comparisons but rather a literary criticism study to determine the art of poetry, its method, its rules and its values.
Some aspects of poetry approach and prerequisites for writing poetry, and the ideas that he expresses in this direction, shed light on Ibn Tabātabā's literary criticism. Because Ibn Tabātabā, in the description of poetry, mentioned some concepts such as literary pleasure and natural talent as well as formal figures. This is the result of his seeing poetry as a living being, and at the same time being a poet. So much so that he did not even consider it necessary for those who possess these two possessions to be knowledgeable about “arūd”, one of the essential elements of poetry. His thoughts show that he is an innovative name. However, Ibn Tabātabā is a name that gives importance to tradition as well as being innovative. According to him, the poet must know Arabic in its purest form, memorize old poems and pass them on to future generations, possess a historian personality searching past cultures, and learn and apply classical poetry methods.
Ibn Tabātabā divided the poetry into different classes, moving from the word-meaning point of view. At this point, he was the name that developed the quadruple system that Ibn Qutayba had done before. In this context, Ibn Tabātabā has drawn a general and theoretical framework, dividing all the poems into two parts: the solid and the gilt. Later on, he went on to the stage of application and teaching, and contacted six poetry genres. At this point, by presenting examples from poems belonging to different periods, he made a determination of the existing problems in terms of word and meaning, and then, if any, declared the solution proposals.
As a result, Ibn Tabātabā, despite having lived in the early period, is a name that reveals original ideas, is open to innovation and appreciates tradition. In this respect, it must be stated that it is a name to be taken into consideration, especially in the works to be carried out in the area of literary criticism.
Keywords: Ibn Tabātabā, Literary Criticism, Poetry, Word, Meaning
Kaynak ve alıcı arasındaki mesaj alış-verişi olarak tanımlanabilecek olan iletişim, din eğitim ve öğretimindeki en temel süreçlerden biridir. Bu süreç kaynak, alıcı, kanal, mesaj, geri bildirim ve ortam gibi farklı bir dizi unsurun etkisiyle şekillenen oldukça karmaşık bir yapıya sahiptir. Fakat bu süreçte en belirleyici olan unsurlar hiç şüphesiz kaynak ve alıcıdır. Zira iletişimin başarısı büyük oranda alıcı ve kaynağın iletişim sürecine bakışları ve ona yükledikleri anlamla ilişkilidir. İletişimin başarı şansını engelleyen ve “gürültü” olarak isimlendirilen etkenlerin en önemlileri de yine kaynak ve alıcı merkezlidir. İletişimin bu iki ana unsurundan kaynaklı engellerin başında ise iletişimde odak kayması problemi yer almaktadır. Etkili bir iletişimde alıcı ve kaynağın nereye odaklanması gerektiği sorusuna verilecek cevapla ilgili olan bu problem sadece iletişim sürecini sekteye uğratmamakta aynı zamanda özellikle dinî iletişim alanında ciddi toplumsal ve teolojik problemlerin ortaya çıkmasına da zemin hazırlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada etkili iletişimin odak noktasının neresi olması gerektiği meselesi ele alınmış, konu alıcı ve kaynak açısından ayrı ayrı incelenmiştir. Özellikle de en az kaynak kadar önemli bir rolü olan alıcının iletişim sürecinde neyi merkeze alması gerektiği meselesi üzerinde şu ana kadar yeterince durulmadığına dikkat çekilmiştir. Neticede iletişimin her bir unsurunun etkili bir iletişimde payı olduğu gerçeği inkar edilmeden kaynak açısından bakıldığında alıcının, alıcı açısından bakıldığında ise mesajın iletişimde odak noktası olarak görülmesi gerektirdiği; özellikle bu iki unsurda karşımıza çıkacak odak kaymasının etkili dinî iletişimin önündeki en önemli engellerden biri olduğu değerlendirilmiştir.
The Focal Points of an Effective Communication in term of the Sender and Receiver and Their Reflections On Religious Communication
Communication is a multidimensional process shaped by various elements, specifically by the sender and the receiver. Both of these elements have an active role in the communication process and cannot be excluded or underestimated by any communication specialist. Both the success and failure of a communication process is largely related with the sender and the receiver. The point on which each one focuses when they are communicating affects the success of the communication process. Thus, the focal point is one of the most important issues in communication, and it varies according to the sender and the receiver. The focal shift, which can be described as stepping away from the focal point in communication, is one of the main reasons behind the failure of communication.
A new understanding of communication places the receiver at the focus of the communication process with regards to the sender, by emphasizing on the recognition of the receiver, and the importance of knowing his interests, needs and expectations for a successful communication process. However, this approach only describes the communication process from the sender’s point of view, and does not answer the question of where the focal point of communication should be in terms of the receiver. In other words, this approach appears to ignore the role of the receiver in the communication process.
When we observe the matter, it could be said that the focal point of communication should be the receiver in terms of the sender and the message in terms of the receiver. However, this does not undervalue the role and importance of the other elements in the communication process. It only draws attention from the perspective of the sender and the receiver to achieve successful religious communication.
The sender’s focal shift, namely his focusing on other elements rather than the receiver, can lead to many problems. The message may not be perceived and understood, nor even felt, by the receiver without knowing the basic psycho-social characteristics of the receiver, drawing his attention, moving his curiosity, and responding his needs. Knowing the receiver should be one of the most important roles of members who are in the formal and informal religious education field. The other elements of the communication process such as the message and the channel should be chosen according to the receiver’s capacity, needs and interests. Otherwise, the purpose of the communication process will not be achieved.
As previously stated, the message should be the focal point of the communication process from the receiver’s point of view. The focal shift on the receiver becomes problematic in religious communication, because it can cause obstacles in the communication process and also cause some major social and theological issues. In fact, this focal shift is one of the reasons that can explain some of the continuing problems with the religious practices in Turkey, and more generally in the Islamic world today.
For instance, when we place the sender at the focus of religious communication instead of the message, some misbehaviors can take place such as absolute disobedience to the sender, and unwavering loyalty, attributing to him superhuman qualities such as infallibility, reading his books instead of The Quran and Sunnah which are the basic sources of Islam. On the other hand, the receiver can focus on the clothing and the speech style of the sender or on an individual issue he experienced before, which closes him to the message. Both situations do not make it possible to acheive an effective religious communication. This kind of a focal shift could be obviously observed in our relationship with The Quran which could be accepted as both the sender and the channel. In general, when we hold the mushaf which consists of papers and letters and includes the verses in high esteem we don’t pay enough attention to the message of it. Thus, the message mostly stays in the shadow of the channel that should deliver the message to us.
In summary, the two focal points, the sender and the receiver, are closely related with each other. The role of the sender is not only to focus on the receiver and to know him as much as possible but also to struggle to draw his attention to the message. In fact, knowing the receiver and sending him messages appropriate to his needs and interests should be accepted as a part of this role. In another word, focusing of the sender on the receiver in communication should be seen as a prerequisite of focusing of the receiver on the massage.
Keywords: Communication, religious communication, focal point, focal shift
Din ve mutluluk din psikolojisi alanındaki önemli konulardandır. Araştırmacılar uzun zamanlardan beridir din ve onunla ilgili olan konularla ilgilenmektedirler. Konu hakkında “din ve mutluluk arasında bir ilişki var mıdır?”, “eğer bu iki kavram arasında bir korelasyon varsa onun kaynakları nelerdir?” ve “dindar insanlar dindar olmayanlardan daha mı mutludurlar?” gibi temel bazı sorular meydana gelmiştir. Bu özlü makalede yazar bu sorulara cevap vermeye çalışmaktadır.
Araştırmacılar din ve mutluluk arasındaki bağlantıyı açıklamak için üç olguya odaklanmışlardır. Bunlar: sosyal destek, katı inançlar ve dinin kendisidir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Din, Mutluluk, İnanç, Korelasyon ve Deneyler